Returns suitably lagged and iterated differences.
diff(x, ...) ## Default S3 method: diff(x, lag = 1, differences = 1, ...) ## S3 method for class 'POSIXt' diff(x, lag = 1, differences = 1, ...) ## S3 method for class 'Date' diff(x, lag = 1, differences = 1, ...)
a numeric vector or matrix containing the values to be differenced.
an integer indicating which lag to use.
an integer indicating the order of the difference.
further arguments to be passed to or from methods.
diff is a generic function with a default method and ones for
x is a vector of length
differences = 1,
then the computed result is equal to the successive differences
x[(1+lag):n] - x[1:(n-lag)].
difference is larger than one this algorithm is applied
Note that the returned value is a vector which is shorter than
x is a matrix then the difference operations are carried out
on each column separately.
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
diff(1:10, 2) diff(1:10, 2, 2) x <- cumsum(cumsum(1:10)) diff(x, lag = 2) diff(x, differences = 2) diff(.leap.seconds)
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