# bitwise: Bitwise Logical Operations

 bitwise R Documentation

## Bitwise Logical Operations

### Description

Logical operations on integer vectors with elements viewed as sets of bits.

### Usage

```bitwNot(a)
bitwAnd(a, b)
bitwOr(a, b)
bitwXor(a, b)

bitwShiftL(a, n)
bitwShiftR(a, n)
```

### Arguments

 `a, b` integer vectors; numeric vectors are coerced to integer vectors. `n` non-negative integer vector of values up to 31.

### Details

Each element of an integer vector has 32 bits.

Pairwise operations can result in integer `NA`.

Shifting is done assuming the values represent unsigned integers.

### Value

An integer vector of length the longer of the arguments, or zero length if one is zero-length.

The output element is `NA` if an input is `NA` (after coercion) or an invalid shift.

The logical operators, `!`, `&`, `|`, `xor`. Notably these do work bitwise for `raw` arguments.

The classes `"octmode"` and `"hexmode"` whose implementation of the standard logical operators is based on these functions.

Package bitops has similar functions for numeric vectors which differ in the way they treat integers 2^31 or larger.

### Examples

```bitwNot(0:12) # -1 -2  ... -13
bitwAnd(15L, 7L) #  7
bitwOr (15L, 7L) # 15
bitwXor(15L, 7L) #  8
bitwXor(-1L, 1L) # -2

## The "same" for 'raw' instead of integer :
rr12 <- as.raw(0:12) ; rbind(rr12, !rr12)
c(r15 <- as.raw(15), r7 <- as.raw(7)) #  0f 07
r15 & r7    # 07
r15 | r7    # 0f
xor(r15, r7)# 08

bitwShiftR(-1, 1:31) # shifts of 2^32-1 = 4294967295
```