Read some or all text lines from a connection.
a connection object or a character string.
integer. The (maximal) number of lines to read. Negative values indicate that one should read up to the end of input on the connection.
logical. Is it OK to reach the end of the connection before
logical. Warn if a text file is missing a final EOL or if there are embedded nuls in the file.
encoding to be assumed for input strings. It is
used to mark character strings as known to be in
Latin-1 or UTF-8: it is not used to re-encode the input. To do the
latter, specify the encoding as part of the connection
logical: should nuls be skipped?
con is a character string, the function calls
file to obtain a file connection which is opened for
the duration of the function call. This can be a compressed file.
If the connection is open it is read from its current position. If it
is not open, it is opened in
"rt" mode for the duration of
the call and then closed again.
If the final line is incomplete (no final EOL marker) the behaviour depends on whether the connection is blocking or not. For a non-blocking text-mode connection the incomplete line is pushed back, silently. For all other connections the line will be accepted, with a warning.
Whatever mode the connection is opened in, any of LF, CRLF or CR will be accepted as the EOL marker for a line.
Embedded nuls in the input stream will terminate the line currently
being read, with a warning (unless
skipNul = TRUE or
con is a not-already-open connection with a non-default
encoding argument, the text is converted to UTF-8 and declared
as such (and the
encoding argument to
readLines is ignored).
See the examples.
A character vector of length the number of lines read.
The elements of the result have a declared encoding if
The default connection,
stdin, may be different from
con = "stdin": see
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cat("TITLE extra line", "2 3 5 7", "", "11 13 17", file = "ex.data", sep = "\n") readLines("ex.data", n = -1) unlink("ex.data") # tidy up ## difference in blocking cat("123\nabc", file = "test1") readLines("test1") # line with a warning con <- file("test1", "r", blocking = FALSE) readLines(con) # empty cat(" def\n", file = "test1", append = TRUE) readLines(con) # gets both close(con) unlink("test1") # tidy up ## Not run: # read a 'Windows Unicode' file A <- readLines(con <- file("Unicode.txt", encoding = "UCS-2LE")) close(con) unique(Encoding(A)) # will most likely be UTF-8 ## End(Not run)
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