Inhibit Interpretation/Conversion of Objects


Change the class of an object to indicate that it should be treated ‘as is’.





an object


Function I has two main uses.

  • In function data.frame. Protecting an object by enclosing it in I() in a call to data.frame inhibits the conversion of character vectors to factors and the dropping of names, and ensures that matrices are inserted as single columns. I can also be used to protect objects which are to be added to a data frame, or converted to a data frame via

    It achieves this by prepending the class "AsIs" to the object's classes. Class "AsIs" has a few of its own methods, including for [,, print and format.

  • In function formula. There it is used to inhibit the interpretation of operators such as "+", "-", "*" and "^" as formula operators, so they are used as arithmetical operators. This is interpreted as a symbol by terms.formula.


A copy of the object with class "AsIs" prepended to the class(es).


Chambers, J. M. (1992) Linear models. Chapter 4 of Statistical Models in S eds J. M. Chambers and T. J. Hastie, Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

See Also

data.frame, formula

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