Concatenate vectors after converting to character.
one or more R objects, to be converted to character vectors.
a character string to separate the terms. Not
an optional character string to separate the results. Not
paste converts its arguments (via
as.character) to character strings, and concatenates
them (separating them by the string given by
sep). If the
arguments are vectors, they are concatenated term-by-term to give a
character vector result. Vector arguments are recycled as needed,
with zero-length arguments being recycled to
character missing value, to
"NA" which may seem
undesirable, e.g., when pasting two character vectors, or very
desirable, e.g. in
paste("the value of p is ", p).
paste0(..., collapse) is equivalent to
paste(..., sep = "", collapse), slightly more efficiently.
If a value is specified for
collapse, the values in the result
are then concatenated into a single string, with the elements being
separated by the value of
A character vector of the concatenated values. This will be of length
zero if all the objects are, unless
collapse is non-NULL in
which case it is a single empty string.
If any input into an element of the result is in UTF-8 (and none are
declared with encoding
that element will be in UTF-8, otherwise in the current encoding in
which case the encoding of the element is declared if the current
locale is either Latin-1 or UTF-8, at least one of the corresponding
inputs (including separators) had a declared encoding and all inputs
were either ASCII or declared.
If an input into an element is declared with encoding
no translation will be done of any of the elements and the resulting
element will have encoding
non-NULL, this applies also to the second, collapsing, phase, but some
translation may have been done in pasting object together in the first
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
toString typically calls
paste(*, collapse=", ").
String manipulation with
cat which concatenates and
writes to a file, and
sprintf for C like string
‘plotmath’ for the use of
paste in plot annotation.
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## When passing a single vector, paste0 and paste work like as.character. paste0(1:12) paste(1:12) # same as.character(1:12) # same ## If you pass several vectors to paste0, they are concatenated in a ## vectorized way. (nth <- paste0(1:12, c("st", "nd", "rd", rep("th", 9)))) ## paste works the same, but separates each input with a space. ## Notice that the recycling rules make every input as long as the longest input. paste(month.abb, "is the", nth, "month of the year.") paste(month.abb, letters) ## You can change the separator by passing a sep argument ## which can be multiple characters. paste(month.abb, "is the", nth, "month of the year.", sep = "_*_") ## To collapse the output into a single string, pass a collapse argument. paste0(nth, collapse = ", ") ## For inputs of length 1, use the sep argument rather than collapse paste("1st", "2nd", "3rd", collapse = ", ") # probably not what you wanted paste("1st", "2nd", "3rd", sep = ", ") ## You can combine the sep and collapse arguments together. paste(month.abb, nth, sep = ": ", collapse = "; ") ## Using paste() in combination with strwrap() can be useful ## for dealing with long strings. (title <- paste(strwrap( "Stopping distance of cars (ft) vs. speed (mph) from Ezekiel (1930)", width = 30), collapse = "\n")) plot(dist ~ speed, cars, main = title)
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