Create a generalised penalty matrix which can be used as hypershrinkage for co-data matrix Z.
createS(orderPen=2, G=10, categorical=FALSE)
The order of the difference penalty. If 0, then a ridge penalty matrix is returned.
Number of co-data variables to be penalised.
If TRUE, a block correlation matrix is returned.
A (GxG)-dimensional penalty matrix.
See for an introduction on p-splines and difference penalties:
Eilers, P. H., & Marx, B. D. (2021). Practical Smoothing: The Joys of P-splines. Cambridge University Press.
A difference penalty may be applied for p-spline basis functions created with
createZforSplines or for categorical co-data created with
S1 <- createS(orderPen=2,G=10) #second difference penalty matrix S2 <- createS(orderPen=0,G=10) #zeroth order defined as ridge penalty matrix S3 <- createS(G=10,categorical=TRUE) #difference penalty for unordered categorical groups
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