fhircrackr Intro: Handling HL7® FHIR® Resources in R

knitr::opts_chunk$set(
  collapse = TRUE,
  comment = "#>"
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Introduction

fhircrackr is a package designed to help analyzing HL7 FHIR^[FHIR is the registered trademark of HL7 and is used with the permission of HL7. Use of the FHIR trademark does not constitute endorsement of this product by HL7] resources.

FHIR stands for Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources and is a standard describing data formats and elements (known as "resources") as well as an application programming interface (API) for exchanging electronic health records. The standard was created by the Health Level Seven International (HL7) health-care standards organization. For more information on the FHIR standard, visit https://www.hl7.org/fhir/.

While FHIR is a very useful standard to describe and exchange medical data in an interoperable way, it is not at all useful for statistical analyses of data. This is due to the fact that FHIR data is stored in many nested and interlinked resources instead of matrix-like structures.

Thus, to be able to do statistical analyses a tool is needed that allows converting these nested resources into data frames. This process of tabulating FHIR resources is not trivial, as the unpredictable degree of nesting and connectedness of the resources makes generic solutions to this problem not feasible.

We therefore implemented a package that makes it possible to download FHIR resources from a server into R and to tabulate these resources into (multiple) data frames.

The package is still under development. The CRAN version of the package contains all functions that are already stable, for more recent (but potentially unstable) developments, the development version of the package can be downloaded from GitHub using devtools::install_github("POLAR-fhiR/fhircrackr").

This vignette is an introduction on the basic functionalities of the fhircrackr and should give you a broad overview over what the package can do. For more detailed instructions on each subtopic please have a look the other vignettes. This introduction covers the following topics:

Prerequisites

The complexity of the problem requires a couple of prerequisites both regarding your knowledge and access to data. We will shortly list the preconditions for using the fhircrackr package here:

  1. First of all, you need the base URL of the FHIR server you want to access. If you don't have your own FHIR server, you can use one of the available public servers, such as https://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4 or http://fhir.hl7.de:8080/baseDstu3. The base URL of a FHIR server is often referred to as [base].

  2. To download resources from the server, you should be familiar with FHIR search requests. FHIR search allows you to download sets of resources that match very specific requirements. The fhircrackr package offers some help building FHIR search requests, for this please see the vignette on downloading FHIR resources.

  3. In the first step, fhircrackr downloads the resources in xml format into R. To specify which elements from the FHIR resources you want in your data frame, you should have at least some familiarity with XPath expressions. A good tutorial on XPath expressions can be found here: https://www.w3schools.com/xml/xpath_intro.asp.

In the following we'll go through a typical workflow with fhircrackr step by step. The first and foremost step is of course, to install and load the package:

install.packages("fhircrackr")
library(fhircrackr)
library(fhircrackr)

Downloading resources

To download resources from a FHIR server, you need to send a FHIR search request using fhir_search(). This introduction will not go into the details of building a valid FHIR search request. For that, please see the vignette on downloading FHIR resources or have a look at ?fhir_url. Here we will use a simple example of downloading all Patient resources from a public HAPI server:

request <- fhir_url(url = "http://fhir.hl7.de:8080/baseDstu3", resource = "Patient")
patient_bundles <- fhir_search(request = request, max_bundles = 2, verbose = 0)
patient_bundles <- fhir_unserialize(bundles = fhircrackr::patient_bundles)

The minimum information fhir_search() requires is a url containing the full FHIR search request in the argument request which you can build by a call to fhir_url() or by providing an explicit string. In general, a FHIR search request returns a bundle of the resources you requested. If there are a lot of resources matching your request, the search result isn't returned in one big bundle but distributed over several of them. If the argument max_bundles is set to its default Inf, fhir_search() will return all available bundles, meaning all resources matching your request. If you set it to 2 as in the example above, the download will stop after the first two bundles. Note that in this case, the result may not contain all the resources from the server matching your request.

If you want to connect to a FHIR server that uses basic authentication, you can supply the arguments username and password. If your server uses some form of bearer token authorization, you can supply the token in the argument token.

As you can see in the next block of code, fhir_search() returns a fhir_bundle_list object, which is basically a list of xml objects where each list element represents one bundle of resources, so a list of two xml objects in our case:

length(patient_bundles)
#> [1] 2
patient_bundles
#> An object of class "fhir_bundle_list"
#> [[1]]
#> A fhir_bundle_xml object
#> No. of entries : 20
#> Self Link: http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient
#> Next Link: http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4?_getpages=ce958386-53d0-4042-888c-cad53bf5d5a1 ...
#> 
#> {xml_node}
#> <Bundle>
#>  [1] <id value="ce958386-53d0-4042-888c-cad53bf5d5a1"/>
#>  [2] <meta>\n  <lastUpdated value="2021-05-10T12:12:43.317+00:00"/>\n</meta>
#>  [3] <type value="searchset"/>
#>  [4] <link>\n  <relation value="self"/>\n  <url value="http://hapi.fhir.org/b ...
#>  [5] <link>\n  <relation value="next"/>\n  <url value="http://hapi.fhir.org/b ...
#>  [6] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837602"/ ...
#>  [7] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/example-r ...
#>  [8] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837624"/ ...
#>  [9] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837626"/ ...
#> [10] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837631"/ ...
#> [11] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837716"/ ...
#> [12] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837720"/ ...
#> [13] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837714"/ ...
#> [14] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837721"/ ...
#> [15] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837722"/ ...
#> [16] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837723"/ ...
#> [17] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837724"/ ...
#> [18] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/cfsb16116 ...
#> [19] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837736"/ ...
#> [20] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837737"/ ...
#> ...
#> 
#> [[2]]
#> A fhir_bundle_xml object
#> No. of entries : 20
#> Self Link: http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4?_getpages=ce958386-53d0-4042-888c-cad53bf5d5a1 ...
#> Next Link: http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4?_getpages=ce958386-53d0-4042-888c-cad53bf5d5a1 ...
#> 
#> {xml_node}
#> <Bundle>
#>  [1] <id value="ce958386-53d0-4042-888c-cad53bf5d5a1"/>
#>  [2] <meta>\n  <lastUpdated value="2021-05-10T12:12:43.317+00:00"/>\n</meta>
#>  [3] <type value="searchset"/>
#>  [4] <link>\n  <relation value="self"/>\n  <url value="http://hapi.fhir.org/b ...
#>  [5] <link>\n  <relation value="next"/>\n  <url value="http://hapi.fhir.org/b ...
#>  [6] <link>\n  <relation value="previous"/>\n  <url value="http://hapi.fhir.o ...
#>  [7] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837760"/ ...
#>  [8] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837766"/ ...
#>  [9] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837768"/ ...
#> [10] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837781"/ ...
#> [11] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837783"/ ...
#> [12] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837784"/ ...
#> [13] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837787"/ ...
#> [14] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837788"/ ...
#> [15] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837789"/ ...
#> [16] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837790"/ ...
#> [17] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837791"/ ...
#> [18] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837792"/ ...
#> [19] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837793"/ ...
#> [20] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837794"/ ...
#> ...

If for some reason you cannot connect to a FHIR server at the moment but want to explore the following functions anyway, the package provides two example lists of bundles containing Patient and MedicationStatement resources. See ?patient_bundles and ?medication_bundles for how to use them.

Flattening resources

Now we know that inside these xml objects there is the patient data somewhere. To bring it into a tabular format, we will use fhir_crack() which creates one table per resource type requested in the design argument. The most important argument fhir_crack() takes is bundles, the list of bundles that is returned by fhir_search(). The second important argument is design, an object that tells the function which data to extract from the bundle and how. fhir_crack() returns (a list of) data.frames or data.tables (if argument data.tables = TRUE).

The object that is passed to the design argument can be of class fhir_table_description or fhir_design. A fhir_table_description is used when you want to extract just one resource type, resulting in a single table. A fhir_design is basically a named list of fhir_table_descriptions and is used when you want to extract several resource types at once, resulting in a named list of tables.

The details of what the different elements of a fhir_table_description or fhir_design mean are described in the vignette on flattening resources. Please refer to this document for more information, as we will just use one simple example here.

#define table_description
table_description <- fhir_table_description(
    resource = "Patient",
    cols     = c(
        PID         = "id",
        use_name    = "name/use",
        given_name  = "name/given",
        family_name = "name/family",
        gender      = "gender",
        birthday    = "birthDate"
    ),
    style    = fhir_style(
        sep           = "|",
        brackets      = c("[", "]"),
        rm_empty_cols = FALSE))

#have a look
table_description

All three elements of style can also be controlled directly by the fhir_crack() arguments sep, brackets and remove_empty_columns. If the function arguments are NULL (their default), the values provided in style are used, if they are not NULL, they will overwrite any values in style. If both the function arguments and the style component of the fhir_table_description are NULL, default values(sep = " ", brackets = NULL, rm_empty_cols = TRUE) will be assumed.

After it is defined, the fhir_table_description can be used in fhir_crack() like this:

#flatten resources
patients <- fhir_crack(bundles = patient_bundles, design = table_description, verbose = 0)

#have look at the results
head(patients)

Extract more than one resource type

Of course the previous example is using just one resource type. If you are interested in several types of resources, you use a fhir_design containing several fhir_table_descriptions.

Consider the following example where we want to download MedicationStatements referring to a certain medication we specify with its SNOMED CT code and also the Patient resources these MedicationStatements are linked to.

We can build the request like this:

request  <- fhir_url(
    url        = "https://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4", 
    resource   = "MedicationStatement", 
    parameters = c(
         "code"    = "http://snomed.info/ct|429374003",
        "_include" = "MedicationStatement:subject"))

Then we can download the resources:

medication_bundles <- fhir_search(request = request, max_bundles = 3)
medication_bundles <- fhir_unserialize(bundles = medication_bundles)

Now our design needs two table_descriptions (called MedicationStatements and Patients in our example), one for the MedicationStatement resources and one for the Patient resources:

MedicationStatements <- fhir_table_description(
    resource = "MedicationStatement",
    cols     = c(
        MS.ID              = "id",
        STATUS.TEXT        = "text/status",
        STATUS             = "status",
        MEDICATION.SYSTEM  = "medicationCodeableConcept/coding/system",
        MEDICATION.CODE    = "medicationCodeableConcept/coding/code",
        MEDICATION.DISPLAY = "medicationCodeableConcept/coding/display",
        DOSAGE             = "dosage/text",
        PATIENT            = "subject/reference",
        LAST.UPDATE        = "meta/lastUpdated"
    ),
    style    = fhir_style(
        sep           = "|",
        brackets      = NULL, 
        rm_empty_cols = FALSE))

Patients <- fhir_table_description(resource = "Patient")

design <- fhir_design(MedicationStatements, Patients)

In this example, we have spelled out the description MedicationStatement completely, while we have used a short form for Patients. The resulting design looks like this:

design

We can now use this design for fhir_crack():

list_of_tables <- fhir_crack(bundles = medication_bundles, design = design, verbose = 0)

list_of_tables$MedicationStatements[1:5,]

list_of_tables$Patients[1:5,]

As you can see, the result now contains two data frames, one for Patient resources and one for MedicationStatement resources.

Multiple entries

A particularly complicated problem in flattening FHIR resources is caused by the fact that there can be multiple entries to an attribute. For a more detailed description of this problem, please see the vignette on flattening resources.

In general, fhir_crack() will paste multiple entries for the same attribute together in the data frame, using the separator provided by the sep argument.

Let's have a look at the following simple example, where we have a bundle containing just two Patient resources. The example is part of the fhricrackr package and you can make it available like this:

bundles <- fhir_unserialize(bundles = example_bundles1)

They represent a very simple bundle of just two Patient resources which looks like this:

<Bundle>

    <Patient>
        <id value='id1'/>
        <address>
            <use value='home'/>
            <city value='Amsterdam'/>
            <type value='physical'/>
            <country value='Netherlands'/>
        </address>
        <name>
            <given value='Marie'/>
        </name>
    </Patient>

    <Patient>
        <id value='id3'/>
        <address>
            <use value='home'/>
            <city value='Berlin'/>
        </address>
        <address>
            <type value='postal'/>
            <country value='France'/>
        </address>
        <address>
            <use value='work'/>
            <city value='London'/>
            <type value='postal'/>
            <country value='England'/>
        </address>
        <name>
            <given value='Frank'/>
        </name>
        <name>
            <given value='Max'/>
        </name>         
    </Patient>      

</Bundle>

The first resource has just one entry for the address attribute. The second Patient resource has an address attribute with three entries containing different elements and also two entries for the name attribute.

This is where the style element of the table_description comes into play:

table_description <- fhir_table_description(
    resource = "Patient",
    style    = fhir_style(
        brackets      = c("[", "]"),
        sep           = " | ",
        rm_empty_cols = FALSE))

df <- fhir_crack(bundles = bundles, design = table_description, verbose = 0)

df

Multiple entries are pasted together with the specified separator in between and the indices (inside the specified brackets) display the entry the value belongs to. That way you can see that Patient resource 2 had three entries for the attribute address and you can also see which attributes belong to which entry.

Process Data Frames with multiple Entries

Melt data frames with multiple entries

If the data frame produced by fhir_crack() contains multiple entries, you'll probably want to divide these entries into distinct observations at some point. This is where fhir_melt() comes into play. fhir_melt() takes an indexed data frame with multiple entries in one or several columns and spreads (aka melts) these entries over several rows:

fhir_melt(
    indexed_data_frame = df,
    columns            = "address.city",
    brackets           = c("[", "]"),
    sep                = " | ",
    all_columns        = FALSE)

The new variable resource_identifier maps which rows in the created data frame belong to which row (usually equivalent to one resource) in the original data frame. brackets and sep should be given the same character vectors that have been used to build the indices in fhir_melt(). columns is a character vector with the names of the variables you want to melt. You can provide more than one column here but it makes sense to only have variables from the same repeating attribute together in one call to fhir_melt():

cols <- c("address.city", "address.use", "address.type", "address.country")

fhir_melt(
    indexed_data_frame = df,
    columns            = cols,
    brackets           = c("[", "]"),
    sep                = " | ",
    all_columns        = FALSE)

With the argument all_columns you can control whether the resulting data frame contains only the molten columns or all columns of the original data frame:

molten <- fhir_melt(
    indexed_data_frame = df,
    columns            = cols,
    brackets           = c("[", "]"),
    sep                = " | ",
    all_columns        = TRUE)

molten

Values on the other variables will just repeat in the newly created rows. For more information, e.g. on how to melt all multiple entries in a data.frame at once, please see the vignette on flattening resources.

Remove indices

Once you have sorted out the multiple entries, you might want to get rid of the indices in your data.frame. This can be achieved using fhir_rm_indices():

fhir_rm_indices(indexed_data_frame = molten, brackets = c("[", "]"))

Again, brackets and sep should be given the same character vector that was used for fhir_crack() and fhir_melt()respectively.

Save and load downloaded bundles

Since fhir_crack() ignores all data not specified in design, it makes sense to store the original search result for reproducibility and in case you realize later on that you need elements from the resources that you haven't extracted at first.

There are two ways of saving the FHIR bundles you downloaded: Either you save them as R objects, or you write them to an xml file.

Save and load bundles as R objects

If you want to save the list of downloaded bundles as an .rda or .RData file, you can't just use R's save() or save_image() on it, because this will break the external pointers in the xml objects representing your bundles. Instead, you have to serialize the bundles before saving and unserialize them after loading. For single xml objects the package xml2 provides serialization functions. For convenience, however, fhircrackr provides the functions fhir_serialize() and fhir_unserialize() that can be used directly on the bundles returned by fhir_search():

#serialize bundles
serialized_bundles <- fhir_serialize(bundles = patient_bundles)

#have a look at them
head(serialized_bundles[[1]])
#create temporary directory for saving
temp_dir <- tempdir()

#save
save(serialized_bundles, file = paste0(temp_dir, "/bundles.rda"))

If you reload this bundle, you have to unserialize it before you can work with it:

#load bundles
load(paste0(temp_dir, "/bundles.rda"))
#unserialize
bundles <- fhir_unserialize(bundles = serialized_bundles)

#have a look
bundles
#> An object of class "fhir_bundle_list"
#> [[1]]
#> A fhir_bundle_xml object
#> No. of entries : 20
#> Self Link: http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient
#> Next Link: http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4?_getpages=ce958386-53d0-4042-888c-cad53bf5d5a1 ...
#> 
#> {xml_node}
#> <Bundle>
#>  [1] <id value="ce958386-53d0-4042-888c-cad53bf5d5a1"/>
#>  [2] <meta>\n  <lastUpdated value="2021-05-10T12:12:43.317+00:00"/>\n</meta>
#>  [3] <type value="searchset"/>
#>  [4] <link>\n  <relation value="self"/>\n  <url value="http://hapi.fhir.org/b ...
#>  [5] <link>\n  <relation value="next"/>\n  <url value="http://hapi.fhir.org/b ...
#>  [6] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837602"/ ...
#>  [7] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/example-r ...
#>  [8] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837624"/ ...
#>  [9] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837626"/ ...
#> [10] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837631"/ ...
#> [11] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837716"/ ...
#> [12] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837720"/ ...
#> [13] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837714"/ ...
#> [14] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837721"/ ...
#> [15] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837722"/ ...
#> [16] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837723"/ ...
#> [17] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837724"/ ...
#> [18] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/cfsb16116 ...
#> [19] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837736"/ ...
#> [20] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837737"/ ...
#> ...
#> 
#> [[2]]
#> A fhir_bundle_xml object
#> No. of entries : 20
#> Self Link: http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4?_getpages=ce958386-53d0-4042-888c-cad53bf5d5a1 ...
#> Next Link: http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4?_getpages=ce958386-53d0-4042-888c-cad53bf5d5a1 ...
#> 
#> {xml_node}
#> <Bundle>
#>  [1] <id value="ce958386-53d0-4042-888c-cad53bf5d5a1"/>
#>  [2] <meta>\n  <lastUpdated value="2021-05-10T12:12:43.317+00:00"/>\n</meta>
#>  [3] <type value="searchset"/>
#>  [4] <link>\n  <relation value="self"/>\n  <url value="http://hapi.fhir.org/b ...
#>  [5] <link>\n  <relation value="next"/>\n  <url value="http://hapi.fhir.org/b ...
#>  [6] <link>\n  <relation value="previous"/>\n  <url value="http://hapi.fhir.o ...
#>  [7] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837760"/ ...
#>  [8] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837766"/ ...
#>  [9] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837768"/ ...
#> [10] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837781"/ ...
#> [11] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837783"/ ...
#> [12] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837784"/ ...
#> [13] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837787"/ ...
#> [14] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837788"/ ...
#> [15] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837789"/ ...
#> [16] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837790"/ ...
#> [17] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837791"/ ...
#> [18] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837792"/ ...
#> [19] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837793"/ ...
#> [20] <entry>\n  <fullUrl value="http://hapi.fhir.org/baseR4/Patient/1837794"/ ...
#> ...

After unserialization, the pointers are restored and you can continue to work with the bundles. Note that the example bundles medication_bundles and patient_bundles that are provided with the fhircrackr package are also provided in their serialized form and have to be unserialized as described on their help page.

Save and load bundles as xml files

If you want to store the bundles in xml files instead of R objects, you can use the functions fhir_save() and fhir_load(). fhir_save() takes a list of bundles in form of xml objects (as returned by fhir_search()) and writes them into the directory specified in the argument directory. Each bundle is saved as a separate xml-file. If the folder defined in directory doesn't exist, it is created in the current working directory.

#save bundles as xml files
fhir_save(bundles = patient_bundles, directory = temp_dir)

To read bundles saved with fhir_save() back into R, you can use fhir_load():

bundles <- fhir_load(directory = temp_dir)

fhir_load() takes the name of the directory (or path to it) as its only argument. All xml-files in this directory are read into R and returned as a list of bundles in xml format just as returned by fhir_search().

Acknowledgements

This work was carried out by the SMITH consortium and the cross-consortium use case POLAR_MI; both are part of the German Initiative for Medical Informatics and funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), grant no. 01ZZ1803A , 01ZZ1803C and 01ZZ1910A.

file.remove(
    paste0(
        temp_dir,
        c("/bundles.rda", "/design.xml", "/1.xml", "/2.xml")))


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fhircrackr documentation built on June 17, 2021, 5:12 p.m.