Leaves: Morphological descriptions of leaf floras

Description Usage Format Details Source References Examples

Description

Measurements of the percentages of leaves in 31 morphological (or architectural) categories found in 245 leaf floras from 4 studies.

Usage

1

Format

A data frame with 245 observations on the following 33 variables.

Lobd

a numeric vector giving percentage Lobed leaves

Entr

a numeric vector giving percentage Entire leaves

TReg

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Regular Teeth

TCls

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Close Teeth

TRnd

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Round Teeth

TAcu

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves Acute Teeth

TCmp

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Compound Teeth

ZNan

a numeric vector giving percentage Nanophyll leaves

ZLe1

a numeric vector giving percentage Leptophyll1 leaves

ZLe2

a numeric vector giving percentage Leptophyll2 leaves

ZMi1

a numeric vector giving percentage Microphyll1 leaves

ZMi2

a numeric vector giving percentage Microphyll2 leaves

ZMi3

a numeric vector giving percentage Microphyll3 leaves

ZMe1

a numeric vector giving percentage Megaphyll1 leaves

ZMe2

a numeric vector giving percentage Megaphyll2 leaves

ZMe3

a numeric vector giving percentage Megaphyll3 leaves

AEmg

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Emarginate Apexes

ARnd

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Round Apexes

AAcu

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Acute Apexes

AAtn

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Attenuate Apexes

BCor

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Cordate Bases

BRnd

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Round Bases

BAcu

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Acute Bases

Rlt1

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio less than 1:1 (i.e. wider than long)

Rb12

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between 1:1 and 1:2

Rb23

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between 1:2 and 1:3

Rb34

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between 1:3 and 1:4

Rgt4

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between greater than 1:4

SObo

a numeric vector giving percentage Obovate leaves

SElp

a numeric vector giving percentage Elliptical leaves

SOvt

a numeric vector giving percentage Ovate leaves

MAT

a numeric vector giving mean annual temperature in degrees Centigrade

Study

a factor with levels Wolfe173 Jacobs Gregory Kowalski

Details

Data consists of a data frame with 245 rows and 33 columns (variables). The rows represent floras (collections of plants from a defined locality); the first 31 variables are percentages of leaves in each flora in each of 31 morphological categories; the 32nd variable is mean annual temperature of the area from which the floras was collected in degrees C, and the 32nd is a factor indicating which of 4 published studies the floras come from. See cited publications for more details.

Source

Green, W. A. (2006) Loosening the CLAMP: An exploratory graphical approach to the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program Palaeontologia Electronica 9(2):9A.

http://www.palaeo-electronica.org/2006\_2/clamp/index.html

http://www.open.ac.uk/earth-research/spicer/CLAMP/Physg3ar.xls (the climatic variables)

http://www.open.ac.uk/earth-research/spicer/CLAMP/MET3AR.xls (the morphological leaf scores)

References

Gregory-Wodzicki, K. M. (2000) Relationships between leaf morphology and climate, Bolivia: implications for estimating paleoclimate from fossil floras. Paleobiology 26(4):668–688.

Jacobs, B. F. (1999) Estimation of rainfall variables from leaf characters in tropical Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 145:231–250.

Jacobs, B. F. (2002) Estimation of low-latitude paleoclimates using fossil angiosperm leaves: examples from the Miocene Tugen Hills, Kenya. Paleobiology 28(3):399–421.

Kowalski, E. A. (2002) Mean annual temperature estimation base on leaf morphology: a test from tropical South America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 188:141–165.

Wolfe, J.A., (1993), A method of obtaining climatic parameters from leaf assemblages. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2040, 73 pp.

Examples

1
2
data(Leaves)
## maybe str(Leaves) ; plot(Leaves) ...

gpairs documentation built on May 30, 2017, 7:48 a.m.

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