Description Usage Format Details Source References Examples

Measurements of the percentages of leaves in 31 morphological (or architectural) categories found in 245 leaf floras from 4 studies.

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A data frame with 245 observations on the following 33 variables.

`Lobd`

a numeric vector giving percentage Lobed leaves

`Entr`

a numeric vector giving percentage Entire leaves

`TReg`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Regular Teeth

`TCls`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Close Teeth

`TRnd`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Round Teeth

`TAcu`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves Acute Teeth

`TCmp`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Compound Teeth

`ZNan`

a numeric vector giving percentage Nanophyll leaves

`ZLe1`

a numeric vector giving percentage Leptophyll1 leaves

`ZLe2`

a numeric vector giving percentage Leptophyll2 leaves

`ZMi1`

a numeric vector giving percentage Microphyll1 leaves

`ZMi2`

a numeric vector giving percentage Microphyll2 leaves

`ZMi3`

a numeric vector giving percentage Microphyll3 leaves

`ZMe1`

a numeric vector giving percentage Megaphyll1 leaves

`ZMe2`

a numeric vector giving percentage Megaphyll2 leaves

`ZMe3`

a numeric vector giving percentage Megaphyll3 leaves

`AEmg`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Emarginate Apexes

`ARnd`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Round Apexes

`AAcu`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Acute Apexes

`AAtn`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Attenuate Apexes

`BCor`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Cordate Bases

`BRnd`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Round Bases

`BAcu`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Acute Bases

`Rlt1`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio less than 1:1 (i.e. wider than long)

`Rb12`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between 1:1 and 1:2

`Rb23`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between 1:2 and 1:3

`Rb34`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between 1:3 and 1:4

`Rgt4`

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between greater than 1:4

`SObo`

a numeric vector giving percentage Obovate leaves

`SElp`

a numeric vector giving percentage Elliptical leaves

`SOvt`

a numeric vector giving percentage Ovate leaves

`MAT`

a numeric vector giving mean annual temperature in degrees Centigrade

`Study`

a factor with levels

`Wolfe173`

`Jacobs`

`Gregory`

`Kowalski`

Data consists of a data frame with 245 rows and 33 columns (variables). The rows represent floras (collections of plants from a defined locality); the first 31 variables are percentages of leaves in each flora in each of 31 morphological categories; the 32nd variable is mean annual temperature of the area from which the floras was collected in degrees C, and the 32nd is a factor indicating which of 4 published studies the floras come from. See cited publications for more details.

Green, W. A. (2006) Loosening the CLAMP: An exploratory graphical approach to the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program *Palaeontologia Electronica* 9(2):9A.

http://www.palaeo-electronica.org/2006\_2/clamp/index.html

http://www.open.ac.uk/earth-research/spicer/CLAMP/Physg3ar.xls (the climatic variables)

http://www.open.ac.uk/earth-research/spicer/CLAMP/MET3AR.xls (the morphological leaf scores)

Gregory-Wodzicki, K. M. (2000) Relationships between leaf morphology and climate, Bolivia: implications for estimating paleoclimate from fossil floras. *Paleobiology* 26(4):668–688.

Jacobs, B. F. (1999) Estimation of rainfall variables from leaf characters in tropical Africa. *Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology* 145:231–250.

Jacobs, B. F. (2002) Estimation of low-latitude paleoclimates using fossil angiosperm leaves: examples from the Miocene Tugen Hills, Kenya. *Paleobiology* 28(3):399–421.

Kowalski, E. A. (2002) Mean annual temperature estimation base on leaf morphology: a test from tropical South America. *Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology* 188:141–165.

Wolfe, J.A., (1993), A method of obtaining climatic parameters from leaf assemblages. *U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin* 2040, 73 pp.

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