Morphological descriptions of leaf floras

Description

Measurements of the percentages of leaves in 31 morphological (or architectural) categories found in 245 leaf floras from 4 studies.

Usage

1

Format

A data frame with 245 observations on the following 33 variables.

Lobd

a numeric vector giving percentage Lobed leaves

Entr

a numeric vector giving percentage Entire leaves

TReg

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Regular Teeth

TCls

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Close Teeth

TRnd

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Round Teeth

TAcu

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves Acute Teeth

TCmp

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Compound Teeth

ZNan

a numeric vector giving percentage Nanophyll leaves

ZLe1

a numeric vector giving percentage Leptophyll1 leaves

ZLe2

a numeric vector giving percentage Leptophyll2 leaves

ZMi1

a numeric vector giving percentage Microphyll1 leaves

ZMi2

a numeric vector giving percentage Microphyll2 leaves

ZMi3

a numeric vector giving percentage Microphyll3 leaves

ZMe1

a numeric vector giving percentage Megaphyll1 leaves

ZMe2

a numeric vector giving percentage Megaphyll2 leaves

ZMe3

a numeric vector giving percentage Megaphyll3 leaves

AEmg

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Emarginate Apexes

ARnd

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Round Apexes

AAcu

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Acute Apexes

AAtn

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Attenuate Apexes

BCor

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Cordate Bases

BRnd

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Round Bases

BAcu

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with Acute Bases

Rlt1

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio less than 1:1 (i.e. wider than long)

Rb12

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between 1:1 and 1:2

Rb23

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between 1:2 and 1:3

Rb34

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between 1:3 and 1:4

Rgt4

a numeric vector giving percentage leaves with aspect ratio between greater than 1:4

SObo

a numeric vector giving percentage Obovate leaves

SElp

a numeric vector giving percentage Elliptical leaves

SOvt

a numeric vector giving percentage Ovate leaves

MAT

a numeric vector giving mean annual temperature in degrees Centigrade

Study

a factor with levels Wolfe173 Jacobs Gregory Kowalski

Details

Data consists of a data frame with 245 rows and 33 columns (variables). The rows represent floras (collections of plants from a defined locality); the first 31 variables are percentages of leaves in each flora in each of 31 morphological categories; the 32nd variable is mean annual temperature of the area from which the floras was collected in degrees C, and the 32nd is a factor indicating which of 4 published studies the floras come from. See cited publications for more details.

Source

Green, W. A. (2006) Loosening the CLAMP: An exploratory graphical approach to the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program Palaeontologia Electronica 9(2):9A.

http://www.palaeo-electronica.org/2006\_2/clamp/index.html

http://www.open.ac.uk/earth-research/spicer/CLAMP/Physg3ar.xls (the climatic variables)

http://www.open.ac.uk/earth-research/spicer/CLAMP/MET3AR.xls (the morphological leaf scores)

References

Gregory-Wodzicki, K. M. (2000) Relationships between leaf morphology and climate, Bolivia: implications for estimating paleoclimate from fossil floras. Paleobiology 26(4):668–688.

Jacobs, B. F. (1999) Estimation of rainfall variables from leaf characters in tropical Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 145:231–250.

Jacobs, B. F. (2002) Estimation of low-latitude paleoclimates using fossil angiosperm leaves: examples from the Miocene Tugen Hills, Kenya. Paleobiology 28(3):399–421.

Kowalski, E. A. (2002) Mean annual temperature estimation base on leaf morphology: a test from tropical South America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 188:141–165.

Wolfe, J.A., (1993), A method of obtaining climatic parameters from leaf assemblages. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2040, 73 pp.

Examples

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2
data(Leaves)
## maybe str(Leaves) ; plot(Leaves) ...

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