causal_forest: Causal forest

Description Usage Arguments Value Examples

View source: R/causal_forest.R

Description

Trains a causal forest that can be used to estimate conditional average treatment effects tau(X). When the treatment assignmnet W is binary and unconfounded, we have tau(X) = E[Y(1) - Y(0) | X = x], where Y(0) and Y(1) are potential outcomes corresponding to the two possible treatment states. When W is continuous, we effectively estimate an average partical effect Cov[Y, W | X = x] / Var[W | X = x], and interpret it as a treatment effect given unconfoundedness.

Usage

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causal_forest(X, Y, W, sample.fraction = 0.5, mtry = NULL,
  num.trees = 2000, num.threads = NULL, min.node.size = NULL,
  honesty = TRUE, ci.group.size = 2, precompute.nuisance = TRUE,
  alpha = NULL, imbalance.penalty = NULL, stabilize.splits = TRUE,
  seed = NULL, clusters = NULL, samples_per_cluster = NULL,
  tune.parameters = FALSE, num.fit.trees = 40, num.fit.reps = 100,
  num.optimize.reps = 1000)

Arguments

X

The covariates used in the causal regression.

Y

The outcome.

W

The treatment assignment (may be binary or real).

sample.fraction

Fraction of the data used to build each tree. Note: If honesty is used, these subsamples will further be cut in half.

mtry

Number of variables tried for each split.

num.trees

Number of trees grown in the forest. Note: Getting accurate confidence intervals generally requires more trees than getting accurate predictions.

num.threads

Number of threads used in training. If set to NULL, the software automatically selects an appropriate amount.

min.node.size

A target for the minimum number of observations in each tree leaf. Note that nodes with size smaller than min.node.size can occur, as in the original randomForest package.

honesty

Whether or not honest splitting (i.e., sub-sample splitting) should be used.

ci.group.size

The forest will grow ci.group.size trees on each subsample. In order to provide confidence intervals, ci.group.size must be at least 2.

precompute.nuisance

Should we first run regression forests to estimate y(x) = E[Y|X=x] and w(x) = E[W|X=x], and then run a causal forest on the residuals? This approach is recommended, computational resources permitting.

alpha

A tuning parameter that controls the maximum imbalance of a split.

imbalance.penalty

A tuning parameter that controls how harshly imbalanced splits are penalized.

stabilize.splits

Whether or not the treatment should be taken into account when determining the imbalance of a split (experimental).

seed

The seed of the C++ random number generator.

clusters

Vector of integers or factors specifying which cluster each observation corresponds to.

samples_per_cluster

If sampling by cluster, the number of observations to be sampled from each cluster. Must be less than the size of the smallest cluster. If set to NULL software will set this value to the size of the smallest cluster.#'

tune.parameters

If true, NULL parameters are tuned by cross-validation; if false NULL parameters are set to defaults.

num.fit.trees

The number of trees in each 'mini forest' used to fit the tuning model.

num.fit.reps

The number of forests used to fit the tuning model.

num.optimize.reps

The number of random parameter values considered when using the model to select the optimal parameters.

Value

A trained causal forest object.

Examples

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## Not run: 
# Train a causal forest.
n = 50; p = 10
X = matrix(rnorm(n*p), n, p)
W = rbinom(n, 1, 0.5)
Y = pmax(X[,1], 0) * W + X[,2] + pmin(X[,3], 0) + rnorm(n)
c.forest = causal_forest(X, Y, W)

# Predict using the forest.
X.test = matrix(0, 101, p)
X.test[,1] = seq(-2, 2, length.out = 101)
c.pred = predict(c.forest, X.test)

# Predict on out-of-bag training samples.
c.pred = predict(c.forest)

# Predict with confidence intervals; growing more trees is now recommended.
c.forest = causal_forest(X, Y, W, num.trees = 4000)
c.pred = predict(c.forest, X.test, estimate.variance = TRUE)

## End(Not run)

grf documentation built on April 14, 2018, 5:06 p.m.

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