get_thresholds: Get class-separating thresholds for classification...

Description Usage Arguments Value Examples

View source: R/get_thresholds.R

Description

healthcareai gives you predicted probabilities for classification problems, but sometimes you need to convert probabilities into predicted classes. That requires choosing a threshold, where probabilities above the threshold are predicted as the positive class and probabilities below the threshold are predicted as the negative class. This function helps you do that by calculating a bunch of model-performance metrics at every possible threshold.

"cost" is an especially useful measure as it allows you to weight how bad a false alarm is relative to a missed detection. E.g. if for your use case a missed detection is five times as bad as a false alarm (another way to say that is that you're willing to allow five false positives for every one false negative), set cost_fn = 5 and use the threshold that minimizes cost (see examples).

We recommend plotting the thresholds with their performance measures to see how optimizing for one measure affects performance on other measures. See plot.thresholds_df for how to do this.

Usage

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get_thresholds(x, optimize = NULL, measures = "all", cost_fp = 1,
  cost_fn = 1)

Arguments

x

Either a predictions data frame (from predict) or a model_list (e.g. from machine_learn).

optimize

Optional. If provided, one of the entries in measures. A logical column named "optimal" will be added with one TRUE entry corresponding to the threshold that optimizes this measure.

measures

Character vector of performance metrics to calculate, or "all", which is equivalent to using all of the following measures. The returned data frame will have one column for each metric.

  • cost: Captures how bad all the errors are. You can adjust the relative costs of false alarms and missed detections by setting cost_fp or cost_fn. At the default of equal costs, this is directly inversely proportional to accuracy.

  • acc: Accuracy

  • tpr: True positive rate, aka sensitivity, aka recall

  • tnr: True negative rate, aka specificity

  • fpr: False positive rate, aka fallout

  • fnr: False negative rate

  • ppv: Positive predictive value, aka precision

  • npv: Negative predictive value

cost_fp

Cost of a false positive. Default = 1. Only affects cost.

cost_fn

Cost of a false negative. Default = 1. Only affects cost.

Value

Tibble with rows for each possible threshold and columns for the thresholds and each value in measures.

Examples

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library(dplyr)
models <- machine_learn(pima_diabetes[1:15, ], patient_id, outcome = diabetes,
                        models = "xgb", tune = FALSE)
get_thresholds(models)

# Identify the threshold that maximizes accuracy:
get_thresholds(models, optimize = "acc")

# Assert that one missed detection is as bad as five false alarms and
# filter to the threshold that minimizes "cost" based on that assertion:
get_thresholds(models, optimize = "cost", cost_fn = 5) %>%
  filter(optimal)

# Use that threshold to make class predictions
(class_preds <- predict(models, outcome_groups = 5))
attr(class_preds$predicted_group, "cutpoints")

# Plot performance on all measures across threshold values
get_thresholds(models) %>%
  plot()

# If a measure is provided to optimize, the best threshold will be highlighted in plots
get_thresholds(models, optimize = "acc") %>%
  plot()

## Transform probability predictions into classes based on an optimal threshold ##
# Pull the threshold that minimizes cost
optimal_threshold <-
  get_thresholds(models, optimize = "cost") %>%
  filter(optimal) %>%
  pull(threshold)

# Add a Y/N column to predictions based on whether the predicted probability
# is greater than the threshold
class_predictions <-
  predict(models) %>%
  mutate(predicted_class_diabetes = case_when(
    predicted_diabetes > optimal_threshold ~ "Y",
    predicted_diabetes <= optimal_threshold ~ "N"
  ))

class_predictions %>%
  select_at(vars(ends_with("diabetes"))) %>%
  arrange(predicted_diabetes)

# Examine the expected volume of false-and-true negatives-and-positive
table(Actual = class_predictions$diabetes,
      Predicted = class_predictions$predicted_class_diabetes)

healthcareai documentation built on Sept. 2, 2018, 1:03 a.m.