phylogeny: Phylogenetic relations between Papuan and Oceanic languages

Description Usage Format Source Examples

Description

Phylogenetic relations between Papuan and Oceanic languages: 127 grammatical traits (absent/present) for 31 languages.

Usage

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Format

A data frame with 31 observations on the following 127 variables.

Language

a factor for 31 languages: Anem, Ata, Bali, Banoni, Bilua, Buin, Gapapaiwa, Kairiru, Kaulong, Kilivila, Kokota, Kol, Kuot, Lavukaleve, Mali, Motuna, Nalik, Nasioi, Rotokas, Roviana, Savosavo, Siar, Sisiqa, Sudest, Sulka, Taiof, Takia, Touo, Tungag, Yabem and Yeli_Dnye.

Family

a factor with levels Oceanic and Papuan.

Frics

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PrenasalizedStops

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PhonDistBetweenLAndR

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PhonVelarFricOrGlide

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PhonVoicingContrAmongStops

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PhonConsLength

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PhonVowelLength

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ContrPhonTypesForVowels

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PhonStress

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

WordFinalConss

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ConsClusters

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

DefOrSpecArt

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

IndefOrNonSpecArt

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ArticleNounOrder

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

NounInitNps

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

InclExclDist

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PronNum

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PronRelationship

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PronConflation

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

MoreThan2DegreesDistDem

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

NonSpkrAnchoredDem

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerticalityDem

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ClassifiedDem

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

NumDeterminedDecl

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

GenderDeterminedDecl

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SuppletiveNouns

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SingMarkedNoun

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

DualMarkedNoun

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PlMarkedNoun

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

OtherNumMarkedNoun

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

LimitedDistNumMarking

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

NounClassesGenders

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ConcordBeyondNp

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

NumeralClassifiers

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PossClassifiers

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PossClasses

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

Inalienability

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

MultiplePossConstr

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PrefixMarkedPoss

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SuffixMarkedPoss

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

MarkedPossr

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

MarkedPossessee

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PossrPossdOrder

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

DecimalNumerals

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

QuinaryNumerals

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

CollectiveNouns

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

AdjVerbLexOverlap

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

AdjAttributionPred

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

CoreCaseMarking

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ObliqueCaseMarking

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

Prepositions

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

Postpositions

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

TamPerson

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbPrefixesProclitics

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbSuffixesEnclitics

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PunctualContinuous

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

RealisIrrealis

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SSuffix

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SPrefix

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ASuffix

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

APrefix

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

OSuffix

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

OPrefix

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbVarTam

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbVarVClass

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbVarClauseType

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbVarPerson

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

NumStemAlt

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PersonStemAlt

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SepVerbNumPerson

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

Portmanteau3Plus

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

DistributedCategory

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

NonCore

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

RecipientObj

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

X3PlacePreds

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbNeg

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbDirection

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbSuppletion

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ConjugationClasses

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

TransIntransAlt

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

TransitivizingMorph

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

IntranstivizingMorph

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ReflexiveMorph

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ReciprocalMorph

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbClassifiers

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

Copula

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

NonVbPreds

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SerialVerbConstr

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

Auxiliaries

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbCompounds

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbAdjunctConstr

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VbIncorporation

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ExistentialVerb

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

IrregularGive

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ClosedClassOfVb

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SvIntransClauses

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VsIntransClauses

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VInitTransClauses

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VMedialTransClauses

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VFinalTransClauses

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

FixedConstituentOrder

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ClauseFinalNeg

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ClauseInitNeg

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ImpVs.DeclNeg

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VbAndNonVbPredIdentity

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SOMorphInBasicConstr

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SAMorphInBasicConstr

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SOMorphInComplexConstr

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SAMorphInComplexConstr

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SynConflationOfSO

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ControlledUncontrolled

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ClauseChaining

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SimultaneousSequential

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

SayInDesidConstr

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

RelativeClauses

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

PurpSubClauses

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

TemporalSubClauses

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

ComplementClauses

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

CausBySerialVerbConstr

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

CausByBoundAffClit

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

CausByConstrInvolvingSay

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

MorphTopicOrFocus

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

TailHeadLinkage

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

VerbRedup

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

NounRedup

a numeric vector, 1: presence, 0: absence

Source

Dunn, M., Terrill, A., Reesink, G., Foley, R. A. and Levinson, S. C. (2005) Structural phylogenetics and the reconstruction of ancient language history, Science, 309, 2072-2075.

Examples

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## Not run: 
data(phylogeny)
library(ape)

# joint analysis of both language families

phylogeny.dist = dist(phylogeny[ ,3:ncol(phylogeny)], method = "binary")
phylogeny.dist.tr = nj(phylogeny.dist)
families =
  as.character(phylogeny$Family[as.numeric(phylogeny.dist.tr$tip.label)])
languages =
  as.character(phylogeny$Language[as.numeric(phylogeny.dist.tr$tip.label)])
phylogeny.dist.tr$tip.label = languages
plot(phylogeny.dist.tr, type="u", font = as.numeric(as.factor(families)))

# analysis of subset of Papuan languages

papuan = phylogeny[phylogeny$Family == "Papuan",]
papuan$Language = as.factor(as.character(papuan$Language))
papuan.meta = papuan[ ,1:2]
papuan.mat = papuan[, 3:ncol(papuan)]
papuan.meta$Geography = c(
  "Bougainville", "Bismarck Archipelago", "Bougainville", 
  "Bismarck Archipelago", "Bismarck Archipelago", "Central Solomons",
  "Bougainville", "Louisiade Archipelago", "Bougainville", 
  "Bismarck Archipelago", "Bismarck Archipelago", 
  "Bismarck Archipelago", "Central Solomons", "Central Solomons", 
  "Central Solomons")
papuan.dist = dist(papuan.mat, method = "binary")
papuan.dist.tr = nj(papuan.dist)
fonts = 
  as.character(papuan.meta$Geography[as.numeric(
    papuan.dist.tr$tip.label)])
papuan.dist.tr$tip.label = 
  as.character(papuan.meta$Language[as.numeric(
    papuan.dist.tr$tip.label)])
plot(papuan.dist.tr, type = "u", font = as.numeric(as.factor(fonts)))

## End(Not run)

languageR documentation built on May 30, 2017, 3:09 a.m.