# grangertest: Test for Granger Causality In lmtest: Testing Linear Regression Models

 grangertest R Documentation

## Test for Granger Causality

### Description

`grangertest` is a generic function for performing a test for Granger causality.

### Usage

```## Default S3 method:
grangertest(x, y, order = 1, na.action = na.omit, ...)
## S3 method for class 'formula'
grangertest(formula, data = list(), ...)
```

### Arguments

 `x` either a bivariate series (in which case `y` has to be missing) or a univariate series of observations. `y` a univariate series of observations (if `x` is univariate, too). `order` integer specifying th order of lags to include in the auxiliary regression. `na.action` a function for eliminating `NA`s after aligning the series `x` and `y`. `...` further arguments passed to `waldtest`. `formula` a formula specification of a bivariate series like `y ~ x`. `data` an optional data frame containing the variables in the model. By default the variables are taken from the environment which `grangertest` is called from.

### Details

Currently, the methods for the generic function `grangertest` only perform tests for Granger causality in bivariate series. The test is simply a Wald test comparing the unrestricted model—in which `y` is explained by the lags (up to order `order`) of `y` and `x`—and the restricted model—in which `y` is only explained by the lags of `y`.

Both methods are simply convenience interfaces to `waldtest`.

### Value

An object of class `"anova"` which contains the residual degrees of freedom, the difference in degrees of freedom, Wald statistic and corresponding p value.

`waldtest`, `ChickEgg`

### Examples

```## Which came first: the chicken or the egg?
data(ChickEgg)
grangertest(egg ~ chicken, order = 3, data = ChickEgg)
grangertest(chicken ~ egg, order = 3, data = ChickEgg)

## alternative ways of specifying the same test
grangertest(ChickEgg, order = 3)
grangertest(ChickEgg[, 1], ChickEgg[, 2], order = 3)
```

lmtest documentation built on March 22, 2022, 1:06 a.m.