# activeSetLogCon: Computes a Log-Concave Probability Density Estimate via an... In logcondens: Estimate a Log-Concave Probability Density from Iid Observations

## Description

Given a vector of observations x_n = (x_1, …, x_n) with not necessarily equal entries, activeSetLogCon first computes vectors x_m = (x_1, …, x_m) and w = (w_1, …, w_m) where w_i is the weight of each x_i s.t. ∑_{i=1}^m w_i = 1. Then, activeSetLogCon computes a concave, piecewise linear function \widehat φ_m on [x_1, x_m] with knots only in {x_1, …, x_m} such that

L(φ) = ∑_{i=1}^m w_i φ(x_i) - int_{-∞}^∞ exp(φ(t)) dt

is maximal. To accomplish this, an active set algorithm is used.

## Usage

 1 activeSetLogCon(x, xgrid = NULL, print = FALSE, w = NA) 

## Arguments

 x Vector of independent and identically distributed numbers, not necessarily unique. xgrid Governs the generation of weights for observations. See preProcess for details. print print = TRUE outputs the log-likelihood in every loop, print = FALSE does not. Make sure to tell R to output (press CTRL+W). w Optional vector of weights. If weights are provided, i.e. if w != NA, then xgrid is ignored.

## Value

 xn Vector with initial observations x_1, …, x_n. x Vector of observations x_1, …, x_m that was used to estimate the density. w The vector of weights that had been used. Depends on the chosen setting for xgrid. phi Vector with entries \widehat φ_m(x_i). IsKnot Vector with entries IsKnot_i = 1\{\widehat φ_m has a kink at x_i\}. L The value L(φ_m) of the log-likelihood-function L at the maximum \widehat φ_m. Fhat A vector (\widehat F_{m,i})_{i=1}^m of the same size as x with entries \widehat F_{m,i} = \int_{x_1}^{x_i} \exp(\widehat φ_m(t)) dt. H Vector (H_1, …, H_m)' where H_i is the derivative of t \to L(φ + tΔ_i) at zero and Δ_i(x) = \min(x - x_i, 0). n Number of initial observations. m Number of unique observations. knots Observations that correspond to the knots. mode Mode of the estimated density \hat f_m. sig The standard deviation of the initial sample x_1, …, x_n.

## Author(s)

Kaspar Rufibach, kaspar.rufibach@gmail.com,
http://www.kasparrufibach.ch

## References

Duembgen, L, Huesler, A. and Rufibach, K. (2010) Active set and EM algorithms for log-concave densities based on complete and censored data. Technical report 61, IMSV, Univ. of Bern, available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.4643.

Duembgen, L. and Rufibach, K. (2009) Maximum likelihood estimation of a log–concave density and its distribution function: basic properties and uniform consistency. Bernoulli, 15(1), 40–68.

Duembgen, L. and Rufibach, K. (2011) logcondens: Computations Related to Univariate Log-Concave Density Estimation. Journal of Statistical Software, 39(6), 1–28. http://www.jstatsoft.org/v39/i06

## See Also

activeSetLogCon can be used to estimate a log-concave density. However, to generate an object of class dlc that allows application of summary and plot we recommend to use logConDens.

The following functions are used by activeSetLogCon:

J00, J10, J11, J20, Local_LL, Local_LL_all, LocalCoarsen, LocalConvexity, LocalExtend, LocalF, LocalMLE, LocalNormalize, MLE

Log concave density estimation via an iterative convex minorant algorithm can be performed using icmaLogCon.

## Examples

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 ## estimate gamma density set.seed(1977) n <- 200 x <- rgamma(n, 2, 1) res <- activeSetLogCon(x, w = rep(1 / n, n), print = FALSE) ## plot resulting functions par(mfrow = c(2, 2), mar = c(3, 2, 1, 2)) plot(res$x, exp(res$phi), type = 'l'); rug(x) plot(res$x, res$phi, type = 'l'); rug(x) plot(res$x, res$Fhat, type = 'l'); rug(x) plot(res$x, res$H, type = 'l'); rug(x) ## compute and plot function values at an arbitrary point x0 <- (res$x + res$x) / 2 Fx0 <- evaluateLogConDens(x0, res, which = 3)[, "CDF"] plot(res$x, res$Fhat, type = 'l'); rug(res$x) abline(v = x0, lty = 3); abline(h = Fx0, lty = 3) ## compute and plot 0.9-quantile of Fhat q <- quantilesLogConDens(0.9, res) plot(res$x, res$Fhat, type = 'l'); rug(res$x) abline(h = 0.9, lty = 3); abline(v = q, lty = 3) 

logcondens documentation built on May 2, 2019, 6:11 a.m.