Draws a sample data set, as introduced by Zou et al. (2006).

1 |

`n` |
The required number of observations. |

`p` |
A vector of length 3, specifying how many variables shall be constructed using the three factors V1, V2 and V3. |

`...` |
Further arguments passed to or from other functions. |

This data set has been introduced by Zou et al. (2006), and then been referred to several times, e.g. by Farcomeni (2009), Guo et al. (2010) and Croux et al. (2011).

The data set contains two latent factors V1 ~ N(0, 290) and V2 ~ N(0, 300) and
a third mixed component V3 = -0.3 V1 + 0.925V2 + e; e ~ N(0, 1).

The ten variables Xi of the original data set are constructed the following
way:

Xi = V1 + ei; i = 1, 2, 3, 4

Xi = V2 + ei; i = 5, 6, 7, 8

Xi = V3 + ei; i = 9, 10

whereas ei ~ N(0, 1) is indepependent for i = 1 , ..., 10

A matrix of dimension `n x sum (p)`

containing the generated sample data
set.

Heinrich Fritz, Peter Filzmoser <P.Filzmoser@tuwien.ac.at>

C. Croux, P. Filzmoser, H. Fritz (2011).
Robust Sparse Principal Component Analysis Based on Projection-Pursuit,
*??* To appear.

A. Farcomeni (2009).
An exact approach to sparse principal component analysis,
*Computational Statistics*, Vol. 24(4), pp. 583-604.

J. Guo, G. James, E. Levina, F. Michailidis, and J. Zhu (2010).
Principal component analysis with sparse fused loadings,
*Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics.* To appear.

H. Zou, T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani (2006).
Sparse principal component analysis,
*Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics*, Vol. 15(2), pp. 265-286.

`sPCAgrid`

, `princomp`

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 | ```
## data generation
set.seed (0)
x <- data.Zou ()
## applying PCA
pc <- princomp (x)
## the corresponding non-sparse loadings
unclass (pc$load[,1:3])
pc$sdev[1:3]
## lambda as calculated in the opt.TPO - example
lambda <- c (0.23, 0.34, 0.005)
## applying sparse PCA
spc <- sPCAgrid (x, k = 3, lambda = lambda, method = "sd")
unclass (spc$load)
spc$sdev[1:3]
## comparing the non-sparse and sparse biplot
par (mfrow = 1:2)
biplot (pc, main = "non-sparse PCs")
biplot (spc, main = "sparse PCs")
``` |

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