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pdp is an R package for constructing p*artial dependence plots* (PDPs) and i*ndividual conditional expectation (ICE) curves. PDPs and ICE curves are part of a larger framework referred to as interpretable machine learning (IML), which also includes (but not limited to) v*ariable importance plots (VIPs). While VIPs (available in the R package vip) help visualize feature impact (either locally or globally), PDPs and ICE curves help visualize feature effects. An in-progress, but comprehensive, overview of IML can be found at the following URL:

A detailed introduction to pdp has been published in The R Journal: “pdp: An R Package for Constructing Partial Dependence Plots”, You can track development at To report bugs or issues, contact the main author directly or submit them to For additional documentation and examples, visit the package website.

As of right now, pdp exports the following functions:


# The easiest way to get pdp is to install it from CRAN:

# Alternatively, you can install the development version from GitHub:
if (!("remotes" %in% installed.packages()[, "Package"])) {

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pdp documentation built on May 12, 2022, 1:06 a.m.