pgram: Plotting the periodogram of time series

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples

View source: R/pgram.R


The periodogram is a classical tool based on the sample Fourier transform for finding periodic components in a time series. The procedure pgram computes and plots an average of np periodograms where np=floor(length(x)/fftlen) where the input parameter fftlen is the length of the FFT; to get just 1 FFT of length fftlen, use x(1:fftlen) in place of x. To get a significance of high periodogram peaks, the procedure tests, at each frequency, the value of the averaged periodogram against the average of 2*halflen neighboring cells (halflen on each side), and averaged over the np periodograms; the neighboring cell average is called the background. Significance of the ratio of center frequency average to the background average is computed from the F distribution.


pgram(x, fftlen,...)



input time series, missing values denoted by NaNs will be replaced in pgram by zeros.


length of FFT which will be used. In pgram we can specify the desired length of the FFT, then x is divided into pieces of this length. FFT is done on each of these pieces and the resulting magnitude squares values are added, so average of the periodograms for each frequency is obtained.


other arguments that are connected with periodogram plot: np1, np2, halflen, alpha, rejalpha, logsw, datastr, typeci, typepgram, colci, colpgram, where
np1 and np2 are frequency indexes of the first and the last frequency in the periodogram plot; it is required that np1 > halflen and usually np2=≤ft \lfloor length(x)/2 \right \rfloor, because periodogram is symmetric;
halflen is a value on each side of the center for background estimation,
alpha is significance level for testing for periodic components,
rejalpha is significance level for rejecting outliers in the background estimation,
logsw if is equal to 1 plot of the periodogram is in \log scale, else linear,
datastr string name of data for printing,
Parameters typeci / typepgram, colci / colpgram define the type and colors of confidence intervals / periodogram values on the plot.
By default they are fixed to np1 = 5, np2 = fftlen/2, halflen = 4, alpha = .05, rejalpha = .01, logsw = 1, datastr = 'data', typeci = "b", typepgram = "b", colci = "red", colpgram = "blue".


When we assume that period T of PC-T structure is unknown, function pgram enables us to find candidate for the period length assuming the period of the second order structure is the same as the period of the first order structure (IE, in the series itself).


For any FFT index j (say where a strong peak occurs) j corresponds to the number of cycles in the FFT window, so the period can be easily computed as T = fftlen/j.


Harry Hurd


Box, G. E. P., Jenkins, G. M., Reinsel, G. (1994), Time Series Analysis, 3rd Ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Hurd, H. L., Miamee, A. G., (2007), Periodically Correlated Random Sequences: Spectral Theory and Practice, Wiley InterScience.

See Also




Example output

null device 
Most significant periodogram bin  41  P-value :  0 

perARMA documentation built on May 2, 2019, 3:18 p.m.