# Responses and Knowledge Structures from Taagepera et al. (1997)

### Description

Taagepera et al. (1997) applied knowledge space theory to specific science problems. The density test was administered to 2060 students, the conservation of matter test to 1620 students. A subtest of five items each is included here. The response frequencies were reconstructed from histograms in the paper.

### Usage

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### Format

Two lists, each consisting of two components:

`density97`

a list with components

`K`

and`N.R`

for the density test.`matter97`

a list with components

`K`

and`N.R`

for the conservation of matter test.`K`

a state-by-problem indicator matrix representing the hypothetical knowledge structure. An element is one if the problem is contained in the state, and else zero.

`N.R`

a named numeric vector. The names denote response patterns, the values denote their frequencies.

### Source

Taagepera, M., Potter, F., Miller, G.E., & Lakshminarayan, K. (1997).
Mapping students' thinking patterns by the use of knowledge space theory.
*International Journal of Science Education*, **19**, 283–302.

### Examples

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