Geometry Union

Description

Functions for joining intersecting geometries.

Usage

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gUnion(spgeom1, spgeom2, byid=FALSE, id=NULL, drop_lower_td=FALSE,
 unaryUnion_if_byid_false=TRUE, checkValidity=FALSE)
gUnionCascaded(spgeom, id = NULL)
gUnaryUnion(spgeom, id = NULL)
gLineMerge(spgeom, byid=FALSE, id = NULL)

Arguments

spgeom1, spgeom2

sp objects as defined in package sp

byid

Logical vector determining if the function should be applied across ids (TRUE) or the entire object (FALSE) for spgeom1 and spgeom2

id

Character vector defining id labels for the resulting geometries, if unspecified returned geometries will be labeled based on their parent geometries' labels; it may contain NA values for input objects not included in the union; it should define the memberships of the output Polygons objects

drop_lower_td

default FALSE; if TRUE, objects will be dropped from output GEOMETRYCOLLECTION objects to simplify output if their topological dinension is less than the minimum topological dinension of the input objects.

spgeom

sp Polygon(s) or Line(s) depending on the function used

unaryUnion_if_byid_false

default TRUE; if byid takes a FALSE in either position, the subgeometries are combined first to avoid possible topology exceptions (change in 0.3-13, previous behaviour did not combine subgeometries, and may be achieved by setting this argument FALSE

checkValidity

default FALSE; error meesages from GEOS do not say clearly which object fails if a topology exception is encountered. If this argument is TRUE, gIsValid is run on each in turn in an environment in which object names are available. If objects are invalid, this is reported and those affected are named

Details

Returns an sp object with intersecting geometries merged. If geometries do not intersect then both are returned as distinct subgeometries.

gUnionCascaded expects a single sp object of class SpatialPolygons with subgeometries which it unions together. gUnionCascaded can only dissolve MultiPolygon objects, so GeometryCollection objects to be dissolved, here a SpatialPolygons object, must be flattened a Polygons object; if GEOS version 3.3.0 is available, use gUnaryUnion.

gUnaryUnion expects a single sp object of class SpatialPolygons with subgeometries which it unions together; introduced in GEOS version 3.3.0, and handles GeometryCollection objects. If the id argument is used, it should be a character vector defining the memberships of the output Polygons objects, equal in length to the length of the polygons slot of spgeom.

gLineMerge is similar to gUnionCascaded but is written to work with lines, specifically it joins line segments with intersecting end points.

Note

Error messages from GEOS, in particular topology exceptions, report 0-based object order, so geom 0 is spgeom1, and geom 1 is spgeom2.

Author(s)

Roger Bivand & Colin Rundel

See Also

gDifference gIntersection gSymdifference

Examples

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if (require(maptools)) {
nc1 <- readShapePoly(system.file("shapes/sids.shp", package="maptools")[1],
 proj4string=CRS("+proj=longlat +datum=NAD27"))
lps <- coordinates(nc1)
ID <- cut(lps[,1], quantile(lps[,1]), include.lowest=TRUE)
if (version_GEOS0() < "3.3.0") {
   reg4 <- gUnionCascaded(nc1, ID)
} else {
   reg4 <- gUnaryUnion(nc1, ID)
}
row.names(reg4)
par(mfrow=c(2,1))
plot(nc1)
plot(reg4)
par(mfrow=c(1,1))
}
gt <- GridTopology(c(0.05,0.05), c(0.1,0.1), c(2,2))
set.seed(1)
xv <- rnorm(length(coordinates(gt)[,1]))
xvs <- ifelse(xv > 0.2,1,0)
grd <- SpatialGridDataFrame(gt, data.frame(xvs))
spix <- as(grd, "SpatialPixelsDataFrame")
spol <- as(spix, "SpatialPolygonsDataFrame")
image(grd, axes=TRUE)
if (version_GEOS0() < "3.3.0") {
  spol1 <- gUnionCascaded(spol, as.character(spol$xvs))
} else {
  spol1 <- gUnaryUnion(spol, as.character(spol$xvs))
}
plot(spol1, add=TRUE)

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