Function for determinging the Boundary of the given geometry as defined by SFS Section 2.1.13.1

1 |

`spgeom` |
sp object as defined in package sp |

`byid` |
Logical determining if the function should be applied across subgeometries (TRUE) or the entire object (FALSE) |

`id` |
Character vector defining id labels for the resulting geometries, if unspecified returned geometries will be labeled based on their parent geometries' labels. |

Depending of the class of the spgeom the returned results will differ.

Based on the documentation of JTS (on which GEOS is based) the following outputs are expected:

Point | empty GeometryCollection |

MultiPoint | empty GeometryCollection |

LineString | if closed: empty MultiPoint if not closed: MultiPoint containing the two endpoints. |

MultiLineString | MultiPoint obtained by applying the Mod-2 rule to the boundaries of the element LineStrings |

LinearRing | empty MultiPoint |

Polygon | MultiLineString containing the LinearRings of the shell and holes, in that order (SFS 2.1.10) |

MultiPolygon | MultiLineString containing the LinearRings for the boundaries of the element polygons, in the same order as they occur in the MultiPolygon (SFS 2.1.12/JTS) |

GeometryCollection | The boundary of an arbitrary collection of geometries whose interiors are disjoint consist of geometries drawn from the boundaries of the element geometries by application of the Mod-2 rule (SFS Section 2.1.13.1) |

The mod-2 rule states that for a multiline a point is on the boundary if and only if it on the boundary of an odd number of subgeometries of the multiline (See example below).

Roger Bivand & Colin Rundel

`gCentroid`

`gConvexHull`

`gEnvelope`

`gPointOnSurface`

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 | ```
x = readWKT("POLYGON((0 0,10 0,10 10,0 10,0 0))")
b = gBoundary(x)
plot(x,col='black')
plot(b,col='red',lwd=3,add=TRUE)
# mod-2 rule example
x1 = readWKT("MULTILINESTRING((2 2,2 0),(2 2,0 2))")
x2 = readWKT("MULTILINESTRING((2 2,2 0),(2 2,0 2),(2 2,4 2))")
x3 = readWKT("MULTILINESTRING((2 2,2 0),(2 2,0 2),(2 2,4 2),(2 2,2 4))")
x4 = readWKT("MULTILINESTRING((2 2,2 0),(2 2,0 2),(2 2,4 2),(2 2,2 4),(2 2,4 4))")
b1 = gBoundary(x1)
b2 = gBoundary(x2)
b3 = gBoundary(x3)
b4 = gBoundary(x4)
par(mfrow=c(2,2))
plot(x1); plot(b1,pch=16,col='red',add=TRUE)
plot(x2); plot(b2,pch=16,col='red',add=TRUE)
plot(x3); plot(b3,pch=16,col='red',add=TRUE)
plot(x4); plot(b4,pch=16,col='red',add=TRUE)
``` |

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