Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples
This is a function for plotting regression
objects. So far, there is an implementation for lm()
objects.
I've been revising plotSlopes so that it should handle the work
performed by plotCurves. As sure as that belief is verified,
the plotCurves work will be handled by plotSlopes. Different
plot types are created, depending on whether the xaxis predictor
plotx
is numeric or categorical.
##'
This is a "simple slope" plotter for regression objects created by
lm()
or similar functions that have capable predict methods
with newdata arguments. The term "simple slopes" was coined by
psychologists (Aiken and West, 1991; Cohen, et al 2002) for
analysis of interaction effects for particular values of a
moderating variable. The moderating variable may be continuous or
categorical, lines will be plotted for focal values of that
variable.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  plotSlopes(model, plotx, ...)
## S3 method for class 'lm'
plotSlopes(model, plotx, modx = NULL, n = 3,
modxVals = NULL, plotxRange = NULL, interval = c("none",
"confidence", "prediction"), plotPoints = TRUE, legendPct = TRUE,
legendArgs, llwd = 2, opacity = 100, ..., col = c("black", "blue",
"darkgreen", "red", "orange", "purple", "green3"), type = c("response",
"link"), gridArgs, width = 0.2)

model 
Required. A fitted Regression 
plotx 
Required. Name of one predictor from the fitted model to be plotted on horizontal axis. May be numeric or factor. 
... 
Additional arguments passed to methods. Often includes arguments that are passed to plot. Any arguments that customize plot output, such as lwd, cex, and so forth, may be supplied. These arguments intended for the predict method will be used: c("type", "se.fit", "interval", "level", "dispersion", "terms", "na.action") 
modx 
Optional. String for moderator variable name. May be either numeric or factor. If omitted, a single predicted value line will be drawn. 
n 
Optional. Number of focal values of 
modxVals 
Optional. Focal values of 
plotxRange 
Optional. If not specified, the observed range of plotx will be used to determine the axis range. 
interval 
Optional. Intervals provided by the

plotPoints 
Optional. TRUE or FALSE: Should the plot include the scatterplot points along with the lines. 
legendPct 
Default = TRUE. Variable labels print with sample percentages. 
legendArgs 
Set as "none" if no legend is desired. Otherwise, this can be a list of named arguments that will override the settings I have for the legend. 
llwd 
Optional, default = 2. Line widths for predicted values. Can be single value or a vector, which will be recycled as necessary. 
opacity 
Optional, default = 100. A number between 1 and 255. 1 means "transparent" or invisible, 255 means very dark. Determines the darkness of confidence interval regions 
col 
Optional.I offer my preferred color vector as default.
Replace if you like. User may supply a vector of valid
color names, or 
type 
Argument passed to the predict function. If model is glm, can be either "response" or "link". For lm, no argument of this type is needed, since both types have same value. 
gridArgs 
Only used if plotx (horizontal axis) is a factor
variable. Designates reference lines between values. Set as
"none" if no grid lines are needed. Default will be

width 
Only used if plotx (horizontal axis) is a factor. Designates thickness of shading for bars that depict confidence intervals. 
The original plotSlopes
did not work well with nonlinear
predictors (log(x) and poly(x)). The separate function
plotCurves()
was created for nonlinear predictive equations
and generalized linear models, but the separation of the two
functions was confusing for users. I've been working to make
plotSlopes handle everything and plotCurves
will disappear
at some point. plotSlopes
can create an object which
is then tested with testSlopes()
and that can be graphed
by a plot method.
The argument plotx
is the name of the horizontal plotting
variable. An innovation was introduced in Version 1.8.33 so that
plotx
can be either numeric or categorical.
The argument modx
is the moderator variable. It may be
either a numeric or a factor variable. As of version 1.7, the modx
argument may be omitted. A single predicted value line will be
drawn. That version also introduced the arguments interval and n.
There are many ways to specify focal values using the arguments
modxVals
and n
. This changed in rockchalk1.7.0. If
modxVals
is omitted, a default algorithm for the variable
type will be used to select n
values for
plotting. modxVals
may be a vector of values (for a numeric
moderator) or levels (for a factor). If modxVals is a vector of
values, then the argument n
is ignored. However, if
modxVals is one of the name of one of the algorithms, "table",
"quantile", or "std.dev.", then the argument n
sets number
of focal values to be selected. For numeric modx
, n
defaults to 3, but for factors modx
will be the number of
observed values of modx
. If modxVals is omitted, the
defaults will be used ("table" for factors, "quantile" for numeric
variables).
For the predictors besides modx
and plotx
(the ones
that are not explicitly included in the plot), predicted values
are calculated with variables set to the mean and mode, for numeric
or factor variables (respectively). Those values can be reviewed
in the newdata object that is created as a part of the output from
this function
Creates a plot and an output object that summarizes it.
The return object includes the "newdata" object that was used to create the plot, along with the "modxVals" vector, the values of the moderator for which lines were drawn, and the color vector. It also includes the call that generated the plot.
Paul E. Johnson <[email protected]>
Aiken, L. S. and West, S.G. (1991). Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., and Aiken, L. S. (2002). Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (Third.). Routledge Academic.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172  ## Manufacture some predictors
set.seed(12345)
dat < genCorrelatedData2 (N = 100, means = rep(0,4), sds = 1, rho = 0.2,
beta = c(0.3, 0.5, 0.45, 0.5, 0.1, 0, 0.6),
stde = 2)
dat$xcat1 < gl(2, 50, labels = c("M", "F"))
dat$xcat2 < cut(rnorm(100), breaks = c(Inf, 0, 0.4, 0.9, 1, Inf),
labels = c("R", "M", "D", "P", "G"))
## incorporate effect of categorical predictors
dat$y < dat$y + 1.9 * dat$x1 * contrasts(dat$xcat1)[dat$xcat1] +
contrasts(dat$xcat2)[dat$xcat2 , ] %*% c(0.1, 0.16, 0, 0.2)
m1 < lm(y ~ x1 * x2 + x3 + x4 + xcat1* xcat2, data = dat)
summary(m1)
## New in rockchalk 1.7.x. No modx required:
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "x1")
## Confidence interval, anybody?
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "x1", interval = "conf")
## Prediction interval.
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "x1", interval = "pred")
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "x1", modx = "xcat2", modxVals = c("R", "M"))
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "x1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "pred")
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "conf", space = c(0,1))
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2",
modxVals = c("Print R" = "R" , "Show M" = "M"), gridArgs = "none")
## Now experiment with a moderator variable
## let default quantile algorithm do its job
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat2", interval = "none")
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "none")
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "confidence",
legendArgs = list(title = "xcat2"), ylim = c(3, 3), lwd = 0.4)
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "confidence",
legendArgs = list(title = "xcat2"), ylim = c(3, 3), lwd = 0.4, width = 0.25)
m1.ps < plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "prediction")
m1.ps < plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "prediction", space=c(0,2))
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "prediction", gridArgs = "none")
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat2", modx = "xcat1", interval = "confidence", ylim = c(3, 3))
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "confidence",
col = c("black", "blue", "green", "red", "orange"), lty = c(1, 4, 6, 3))
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "confidence",
col = gray.colors(4, end = 0.5), lty = c(1, 4, 6, 3), legendArgs = list(horiz=TRUE))
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "confidence",
col = c("pink", "orange"))
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", interval = "confidence",
col = c("black", "blue", "green", "red", "orange"))
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "xcat1", modx = "xcat2", interval = "confidence",
col = c("black", "blue", "green", "red", "orange"),
gridlwd = 0.2)
## previous uses default equivalent to
## plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "x1", modx = "x2", modxVals = "quantile")
## Want more focal values?
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "x1", modx = "x2", n = 5)
## Pick focal values yourself?
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "x1", modx = "x2", modxVals = c(2, 0, 0.5))
## Alternative algorithm?
plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "x1", modx = "x2", modxVals = "std.dev.",
main = "Uses \"std.dev.\" Divider for the Moderator",
xlab = "My Predictor", ylab = "Write Anything You Want for ylab")
## Will catch output object from this one
m1ps < plotSlopes(m1, plotx = "x1", modx = "x2", modxVals = "std.dev.", n = 5,
main = "Setting n = 5 Selects More Focal Values for Plotting")
m1ts < testSlopes(m1ps)
plot(m1ts)
### Examples with categorical Moderator variable
m3 < lm (y ~ x1 + xcat1, data = dat)
summary(m3)
plotSlopes(m3, modx = "xcat1", plotx = "x1")
plotSlopes(m3, modx = "xcat1", plotx = "x1", interval = "predict")
plotSlopes(m3, modx = "x1", plotx = "xcat1", interval = "confidence",
legendArgs = list(x = "bottomright", title = ""))
m4 < lm (y ~ x1 * xcat1, data = dat)
summary(m4)
plotSlopes(m4, modx = "xcat1", plotx = "x1")
plotSlopes(m4, modx = "xcat1", plotx = "x1", interval = "conf")
m5 < lm (y ~ x1 + x2 + x1 * xcat2, data = dat)
summary(m5)
plotSlopes(m5, modx = "xcat2", plotx = "x1")
m5ps < plotSlopes(m5, modx = "xcat2", plotx = "x1", interval = "conf")
testSlopes(m5ps)
## Now examples with real data. How about Chilean voters?
library(carData)
m6 < lm(statusquo ~ income * sex, data = Chile)
summary(m6)
plotSlopes(m6, modx = "sex", plotx = "income")
m6ps < plotSlopes(m6, modx = "sex", plotx = "income", col = c("orange", "blue"))
testSlopes(m6ps)
m7 < lm(statusquo ~ region * income, data= Chile)
summary(m7)
plotSlopes(m7, plotx = "income", modx = "region")
plotSlopes(m7, plotx = "income", modx = "region", plotPoints = FALSE)
plotSlopes(m7, plotx = "income", modx = "region", plotPoints = FALSE,
interval = "conf")
plotSlopes(m7, plotx = "income", modx = "region", modxVals = c("SA","S", "C"),
plotPoints = FALSE, interval = "conf")
## Same, choosing 3 most frequent values
plotSlopes(m7, plotx = "income", modx = "region", n = 3, plotPoints = FALSE,
interval = "conf")
m8 < lm(statusquo ~ region * income + sex + age, data= Chile)
summary(m8)
plotSlopes(m8, modx = "region", plotx = "income")
m9 < lm(statusquo ~ income * age + education + sex + age, data = Chile)
summary(m9)
plotSlopes(m9, modx = "income", plotx = "age")
m9ps < plotSlopes(m9, modx = "income", plotx = "age")
m9psts < testSlopes(m9ps)
plot(m9psts) ## only works if moderator is numeric
## Demonstrate relabeling
plotSlopes(m9, modx = "income", plotx = "age", n = 5,
modxVals = c("Very poor" = 7500, "Rich" = 125000),
main = "Chile Data", legendArgs = list(title = "Designated Incomes"))
plotSlopes(m9, modx = "income", plotx = "age", n = 5, modxVals = c("table"),
main = "Moderator: mean plus/minus 2 SD")
## Convert education to numeric, for fun
Chile$educationn < as.numeric(Chile$education)
m10 < lm(statusquo ~ income * educationn + sex + age, data = Chile)
summary(m10)
plotSlopes(m10, plotx = "educationn", modx = "income")
## Now, the occupational prestige data. Please note careful attention
## to consistency of colors selected
data(Prestige)
m11 < lm(prestige ~ education * type, data = Prestige)
plotSlopes(m11, plotx = "education", modx = "type", interval = "conf")
dev.new()
plotSlopes(m11, plotx = "education", modx = "type",
modxVals = c("prof"), interval = "conf")
dev.new()
plotSlopes(m11, plotx = "education", modx = "type",
modxVals = c("bc"), interval = "conf")
dev.new()
plotSlopes(m11, plotx = "education", modx = "type",
modxVals = c("bc", "wc"), interval = "conf")
