Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples
contour
, image
, and persp
methods that display the fitted surface for an lm
object
involving two or more numerical predictors.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14  ## S3 method for class 'lm'
contour(x, form, at, bounds, zlim, xlabs, hook,
plot.it = TRUE, atpos = 1, decode = TRUE, image = FALSE,
img.col = terrain.colors(50), ...)
## S3 method for class 'lm'
image(x, form, at, bounds, zlim, xlabs, hook,
atpos = 1, decode = TRUE, ...)
## S3 method for class 'lm'
persp(x, form, at, bounds, zlim, zlab, xlabs,
col = "white", contours = NULL, hook, atpos = 3, decode = TRUE,
theta = 25, phi = 20, r = 4, border = NULL, box = TRUE,
ticktype = "detailed", ...)

x 
A 
form 
A formula, or a list of formulas. 
at 
Optional named list of fixed values to use for surface slices.
For example, if the predictor variables are 
bounds 
Optional named list of bounds or grid values to use for the variables having the same names. See details. 
zlim 

zlab 
Optional label for the vertical axis. 
xlabs 
Alternate labels for predictor axes (see Details). 
hook 
Optional list that can contain functions 
atpos 
Determines where 
decode 
This has an effect only if 
image 
Set to 
img.col 
Color map to use when 
plot.it 
If 
col 
Color or colors used for facets in the perspective plot (see details). 
contours 
If non 
theta, phi 
Viewing angles passed to 
r 
Viewing distance passed to 
border, box 
Options passed to 
ticktype 
Option passed to 
... 
Additional arguments passed to 
form
may be a single formula or a list of formulas. A simple formula like
x2 ~ x1
will produce a contour plot of the fitted regression surface
for combinations of x2
(vertical axis) and x1
(horizontal axis).
A list of several such simple formulas will produce a contour plot for each formula.
A twosided formula produces contour plots for each lefthand variable versus each
righthand variable (except when they are the same); for example,
x1+x3 ~ x2+x3
is equivalent to
list(x1~x2, x3~x2, x1~x3)
.
A onesided formula produces contour plots for each pair of variables. For example,
~ x1+x2+x3
is equivalent to
list(x2~x1, x3~x1, x3~x2)
.
For any variables not in the bounds
argument, a grid of 26 equallyspaced
values in the observed range of that variable is used. If you specify a vector of
length 2, it is interpreted as the desired range for that variable and a grid of 26
equallyspaced points is generated. If it is a vector of length 3, the first two elements are used
as the range, and the third as the number of grid points.
If it is a vector of length 4 or more, those
values are used directly as the grid values.
The results are based on the predicted values of the linear model over the specified grid. If there are factor
s among the predictors, the predictions are made over all levels (or combinations of levels) of those factors, and then averaged together. (However, the user may include factors in at
to restrict this behavior.)
By default, the predictor axes are labeled using the variable names in form
,
unless x
is an rsm
or other object that supports coded.data
, in which case either the decoded variable names or the variablecoding formulas are used to generate axis labels, depending on whether decode
is TRUE
or FALSE
.
These axis labels are replaced by the entries in xlabs
if provided. One must be careful using this
to make sure that the names are mapped correctly. The entries in xlabs
should match the respective unique variable names in form
, after sorting them in
(caseinsensitive) alphabetical order (not necessarily in order of appearance). Note that if form
is changed, it may also
be necessary to change xlabs
.
Please note that with models fitted to coded data, coded values should be used in at
or bounds
, regardless of whether decode
is TRUE
or FALSE
. However, any elements that are added afterward via points
, lines
, etc., must be specified in terms of whatever coordinate system is present in the plots.
In persp
, contour lines may be added via the contours
argument. It may be a boolean or character value, or a list
.
If boolean and TRUE
, default black contour lines are added to the bottom surface of the box. Character values of "top"
, "bottom"
add black contour lines to the specified surface of the box. contours = "colors"
puts contour lines on the bottom using the same colors as those
at the same height on the surface. Other character values of contours
are taken to be the desired color of the contour lines, plotted at the bottom.
If contours
is a named list
, its elements (all are optional) are used as follows:
z
Height where the contour lines are plotted. May be "bottom"
(default), "top"
, or a numeric value.
col
Color of the lines. If not specified, they will be black.
May be integer color values, color names, or "colors"
to match the surface colors.
lwd
Line width; default is 1.
Since these functions often produce several plots, the hook
argument is provided if special setups or annotations are needed for each plot. It
should be a list that defines one or both of the functions pre.plot
and post.plot
. Both of these functions have one argument, the character
vector labs
for that plot (see Value documentation).
Additional examples and discussion of these plotting functions is available via vignette("rsmplots")
.
A list
containing information that is plotted.
Each list item is itself a list
with the following components:
x, y 
The values used for the x and y axes 
z 
The matrix of fitted response values 
labs 
Character vector of length 5: Elements 1 and 2 are the x and y axis labels,
elements 3 and 4 are their original variable names,
and element 5 is the slice label (empty if 
zlim 
The computed or provided 
transf 
( 
Russell V. Lenth
Lenth RV (2009) “ResponseSurface Methods in R, Using rsm”, Journal of Statistical Software, 32(7), 1–17. doi: 10.18637/jss.v032.i07
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41  ### Basic example with a linear model:
mpg.lm < lm(mpg ~ poly(hp, disp, degree = 3), data = mtcars)
contour(mpg.lm, hp ~ disp, image = TRUE)
### Extended example with an rsm model...
heli.rsm < rsm (ave ~ block + SO(x1, x2, x3, x4), data = heli)
# Plain contour plots
par (mfrow = c(2,3))
contour (heli.rsm, ~x1+x2+x3+x4, at = xs(heli.rsm))
# Same but with image overlay, slices at origin and block 2,
# and no slice labeling
contour (heli.rsm, ~x1+x2+x3+x4, at = list(block="2"),
atpos = 0, image = TRUE)
# Default perspective views
persp (heli.rsm, ~x1+x2+x3+x4, at = xs(heli.rsm))
# Same plots, soupedup with facet coloring and axis labeling
persp (heli.rsm, ~x1+x2+x3+x4, at = xs(heli.rsm),
contours = "col", col = rainbow(40), zlab = "Flight time",
xlabs = c("Wing area", "Wing length", "Body width", "Body length"))
## Not run:
### Hints for creating graphics files for use in publications...
# Save perspective plots in one PDF file (will be six pages long)
pdf(file = "heliplots.pdf")
persp (heli.rsm, ~x1+x2+x3+x4, at = xs(heli.rsm))
dev.off()
# Save perspective plots in six separate PNG files
png.hook = list(
pre.plot = function(lab)
png(file = paste(lab[3], lab[4], ".png", sep = "")),
post.plot = function(lab)
dev.off())
persp (heli.rsm, ~x1+x2+x3+x4, at = xs(heli.rsm), hook = png.hook)
## End(Not run)

png
2
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