library(simstudy) library(ggplot2) library(scales) library(grid) library(gridExtra) library(survival) library(gee) library(data.table) plotcolors <- c("#B84226", "#1B8445", "#1C5974") cbbPalette <- c("#B84226","#B88F26", "#A5B435", "#1B8446", "#B87326","#B8A526", "#6CA723", "#1C5974") ggtheme <- function(panelback = "white") { ggplot2::theme( panel.background = element_rect(fill = panelback), panel.grid = element_blank(), axis.ticks = element_line(colour = "black"), panel.spacing =unit(0.25, "lines"), # requires package grid panel.border = element_rect(fill = NA, colour="gray90"), plot.title = element_text(size = 8,vjust=.5,hjust=0), axis.text = element_text(size=8), axis.title = element_text(size = 8) ) }

Sometimes it is desirable to simulate correlated data from a correlation matrix directly. For example, a simulation might require two random effects (e.g. a random intercept and a random slope). Correlated data like this could be generated using the `defData`

functionality, but it may be more natural to do this with `genCorData`

or `addCorData`

. Currently, simstudy can only generate multivariate normal using these functions. (In the future, additional distributions will be available.)

`genCorData`

requires the user to specify a mean vector `mu`

, a single standard deviation or a vector of standard deviations `sigma`

, and either a correlation matrix `corMatrix`

or a correlation coefficient `rho`

and a correlation structure `corsrt`

. It is easy to see how this can be used from a few different examples.

# specifying a specific correlation matrix C C <- matrix(c(1,.7,.2, .7, 1, .8, .2, .8, 1),nrow = 3) C # generate 3 correlated variables with different location and scale for each field dt <- genCorData(1000, mu=c(4,12,3), sigma = c(1,2,3), corMatrix=C) dt # estimate correlation matrix dt[,round(cor(cbind(V1, V2, V3)),1)] # estimate standard deviation dt[,round(sqrt(diag(var(cbind(V1, V2, V3)))),1)]

# generate 3 correlated variables with different location but same standard deviation # and compound symmetry (cs) correlation matrix with correlation coefficient = 0.4. # Other correlation matrix structures are "independent" ("ind") and "auto-regressive" ("ar1"). dt <- genCorData(1000, mu=c(4,12,3), sigma = 3, rho = .4, corstr = "cs", cnames=c("x0","x1","x2")) dt # estimate correlation matrix dt[,round(cor(cbind(x0, x1, x2)),1)] # estimate standard deviation dt[,round(sqrt(diag(var(cbind(x0, x1, x2)))),1)]

The new data generated by `genCorData`

can be merged with an existing data set. Alternatively, `addCorData`

will do this directly:

# define and generate the original data set def <- defData(varname = "x", dist = "normal", formula = 0, variance = 1, id = "cid") dt <- genData(1000, def) # add new correlate fields a0 and a1 to "dt" dt <- addCorData(dt, idname="cid", mu=c(0,0), sigma = c(2,.2), rho = -0.2, corstr = "cs", cnames=c("a0","a1")) dt # estimate correlation matrix dt[,round(cor(cbind(a0, a1)),1)] # estimate standard deviation dt[,round(sqrt(diag(var(cbind(a0, a1)))),1)]

Two additional functions facilitate the generation of correlated data from *binomial*, *poisson*, *gamma*, and *uniform* distributions: `genCorGen`

and `addCorGen`

.

`genCorGen`

is an extension of `genCorData`

. In the first example, we are generating data from a multivariate Poisson distribution. We start by specifying the mean of the Poisson distribution for each new variable, and then we specify the correlation structure, just as we did with the normal distribution.

l <- c(8, 10, 12) # lambda for each new variable dx <- genCorGen(1000, nvars = 3, params1 = l, dist = "poisson", rho = .3, corstr = "cs", wide = TRUE) dx round(cor(as.matrix(dx[, .(V1, V2, V3)])), 2)

We can also generate correlated binary data by specifying the probabilities:

genCorGen(1000, nvars = 3, params1 = c(.3, .5, .7), dist = "binary", rho = .8, corstr = "cs", wide = TRUE)

The gamma distribution requires two parameters - the mean and dispersion. (These are converted into shape and rate parameters more commonly used.)

dx <- genCorGen(1000, nvars = 3, params1 = l, params2 = c(1,1,1), dist = "gamma", rho = .7, corstr = "cs", wide = TRUE, cnames="a, b, c") dx round(cor(as.matrix(dx[, .(a, b, c)])), 2)

These data sets can be generated in either *wide* or *long* form. So far, we have generated *wide* form data, where there is one row per unique id. Now, we will generate data using the *long* form, where the correlated data are on different rows, so that there are repeated measurements for each id. An id will have multiple records (i.e. one id will appear on multiple rows):

dx <- genCorGen(1000, nvars = 3, params1 = l, params2 = c(1,1,1), dist = "gamma", rho = .7, corstr = "cs", wide = FALSE, cnames="NewCol") dx

`addCorGen`

allows us to create correlated data from an existing data set, as one can already do using `addCorData`

. In the case of `addCorGen`

, the parameter(s) used to define the distribution are created as a field (or fields) in the dataset. The correlated data are added to the existing data set. In the example below, we are going to generate three sets (poisson, binary, and gamma) of correlated data with means that are a function of the variable `xbase`

, which varies by id.

First we define the data and generate a data set:

def <- defData(varname = "xbase", formula = 5, variance = .2, dist = "gamma", id = "cid") def <- defData(def, varname = "lambda", formula = ".5 + .1*xbase", dist="nonrandom", link = "log") def <- defData(def, varname = "p", formula = "-2 + .3*xbase", dist="nonrandom", link = "logit") def <- defData(def, varname = "gammaMu", formula = ".5 + .2*xbase", dist="nonrandom", link = "log") def <- defData(def, varname = "gammaDis", formula = 1, dist="nonrandom") dt <- genData(10000, def) dt

The Poisson distribution has a single parameter, lambda:

dtX1 <- addCorGen(dtOld = dt, idvar = "cid", nvars = 3, rho = .1, corstr = "cs", dist = "poisson", param1 = "lambda", cnames = "a, b, c") dtX1

The Bernoulli (binary) distribution has a single parameter, p:

dtX2 <- addCorGen(dtOld = dt, idvar = "cid", nvars = 4, rho = .4, corstr = "ar1", dist = "binary", param1 = "p") dtX2

The Gamma distribution has two parameters - in `simstudy`

the mean and dispersion are specified:

dtX3 <- addCorGen(dtOld = dt, idvar = "cid", nvars = 4, rho = .4, corstr = "cs", dist = "gamma", param1 = "gammaMu", param2 = "gammaDis") dtX3

If we have data in *long* form (e.g. longitudinal data), the function will recognize the structure:

def <- defData(varname = "xbase", formula = 5, variance = .4, dist = "gamma", id = "cid") def <- defData(def, "nperiods", formula = 3, dist = "noZeroPoisson") def2 <- defDataAdd(varname = "lambda", formula = ".5+.5*period + .1*xbase", dist="nonrandom", link = "log") dt <- genData(1000, def) dtLong <- addPeriods(dt, idvars = "cid", nPeriods = 3) dtLong <- addColumns(def2, dtLong) dtLong ### Generate the data dtX3 <- addCorGen(dtOld = dtLong, idvar = "cid", nvars = 3, rho = .6, corstr = "cs", dist = "poisson", param1 = "lambda", cnames = "NewPois") dtX3

We can fit a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model and examine the coefficients and the working correlation matrix. They match closely to the data generating parameters:

geefit <- gee(NewPois ~ period + xbase, data = dtX3, id = cid, family = poisson, corstr = "exchangeable") round(summary(geefit)$working.correlation, 2)

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