adam: ADAM is Augmented Dynamic Adaptive Model

View source: R/adam.R

adamR Documentation

ADAM is Augmented Dynamic Adaptive Model


Function constructs an advanced Single Source of Error model, based on ETS taxonomy and ARIMA elements


adam(data, model = "ZXZ", lags = c(frequency(data)), orders = list(ar =
  c(0), i = c(0), ma = c(0), select = FALSE), constant = FALSE,
  formula = NULL, regressors = c("use", "select", "adapt"),
  occurrence = c("none", "auto", "fixed", "general", "odds-ratio",
  "inverse-odds-ratio", "direct"), distribution = c("default", "dnorm",
  "dlaplace", "ds", "dgnorm", "dlnorm", "dinvgauss", "dgamma"),
  loss = c("likelihood", "MSE", "MAE", "HAM", "LASSO", "RIDGE", "MSEh",
  "TMSE", "GTMSE", "MSCE"), outliers = c("ignore", "use", "select"),
  level = 0.99, h = 0, holdout = FALSE, persistence = NULL,
  phi = NULL, initial = c("optimal", "backcasting"), arma = NULL,
  ic = c("AICc", "AIC", "BIC", "BICc"), bounds = c("usual", "admissible",
  "none"), silent = TRUE, ...)

auto.adam(data, model = "ZXZ", lags = c(frequency(data)),
  orders = list(ar = c(0), i = c(0), ma = c(0), select = FALSE),
  formula = NULL, regressors = c("use", "select", "adapt"),
  occurrence = c("none", "auto", "fixed", "general", "odds-ratio",
  "inverse-odds-ratio", "direct"), distribution = c("dnorm", "dlaplace",
  "ds", "dgnorm", "dlnorm", "dinvgauss", "dgamma"), outliers = c("ignore",
  "use", "select"), level = 0.99, h = 0, holdout = FALSE,
  persistence = NULL, phi = NULL, initial = c("optimal", "backcasting"),
  arma = NULL, ic = c("AICc", "AIC", "BIC", "BICc"), bounds = c("usual",
  "admissible", "none"), silent = TRUE, parallel = FALSE, ...)

## S3 method for class 'adam'
sm(object, model = "YYY", lags = NULL, orders = list(ar =
  c(0), i = c(0), ma = c(0), select = FALSE), constant = FALSE,
  formula = NULL, regressors = c("use", "select", "adapt"), data = NULL,
  persistence = NULL, phi = NULL, initial = c("optimal", "backcasting"),
  arma = NULL, ic = c("AICc", "AIC", "BIC", "BICc"), bounds = c("usual",
  "admissible", "none"), silent = TRUE, ...)



Vector, containing data needed to be forecasted. If a matrix (or data.frame / data.table) is provided, then the first column is used as a response variable, while the rest of the matrix is used as a set of explanatory variables. formula can be used in the latter case in order to define what relation to have.


The type of ETS model. The first letter stands for the type of the error term ("A" or "M"), the second (and sometimes the third as well) is for the trend ("N", "A", "Ad", "M" or "Md"), and the last one is for the type of seasonality ("N", "A" or "M"). In case of several lags, the seasonal components are assumed to be the same. The model is then printed out as ETS(M,Ad,M)[m1,m2,...], where m1, m2, ... are the lags specified by the lags parameter. There are several options for the model besides the conventional ones, which rely on information criteria:

  1. model="ZZZ" means that the model will be selected based on the chosen information criteria type. The Branch and Bound is used in the process.

  2. model="XXX" means that only additive components are tested, using Branch and Bound.

  3. model="YYY" implies selecting between multiplicative components.

  4. model="CCC" triggers the combination of forecasts of models using information criteria weights (Kolassa, 2011).

  5. combinations between these four and the classical components are also accepted. For example, model="CAY" will combine models with additive trend and either none or multiplicative seasonality.

  6. model="PPP" will produce the selection between pure additive and pure multiplicative models. "P" stands for "Pure". This cannot be mixed with other types of components.

  7. model="FFF" will select between all the 30 types of models. "F" stands for "Full". This cannot be mixed with other types of components.

  8. The parameter model can also be a vector of names of models for a finer tuning (pool of models). For example, model=c("ANN","AAA") will estimate only two models and select the best of them.

Also, model can accept a previously estimated adam and use all its parameters.

Keep in mind that model selection with "Z" components uses Branch and Bound algorithm and may skip some models that could have slightly smaller information criteria. If you want to do a exhaustive search, you would need to list all the models to check as a vector.

The default value is set to "ZXZ", because the multiplicative trend is explosive and dangerous. It should be used only for each separate time series, not for the automated predictions for big datasets.


Defines lags for the corresponding components. All components count, starting from level, so ETS(M,M,M) model for monthly data will have lags=c(1,1,12). However, the function will also accept lags=c(12), assuming that the lags 1 were dropped. In case of ARIMA, lags specify what should be the seasonal component lag. e.g. lags=c(1,12) will lead to the seasonal ARIMA with m=12. This can accept several lags, supporting multiple seasonal ETS and ARIMA models.


The order of ARIMA to be included in the model. This should be passed either as a vector (in which case the non-seasonal ARIMA is assumed) or as a list of a type orders=list(ar=c(p,P),i=c(d,D),ma=c(q,Q)), in which case the lags variable is used in order to determine the seasonality m. See msarima for details. In addition, orders accepts one more parameter: orders=list(select=FALSE). If TRUE, then the function will select the most appropriate order using a mechanism similar to auto.msarima(), but implemented in auto.adam(). The values list(ar=...,i=...,ma=...) specify the maximum orders to check in this case.


Logical, determining, whether the constant is needed in the model or not. This is mainly needed for ARIMA part of the model, but can be used for ETS as well. In case of pure regression, this is completely ignored (use formula instead).


Formula to use in case of explanatory variables. If NULL, then all the variables are used as is. Can also include trend, which would add the global trend. Only needed if data is a matrix or if trend is provided.


The variable defines what to do with the provided explanatory variables: "use" means that all of the data should be used, while "select" means that a selection using ic should be done, "adapt" will trigger the mechanism of time varying parameters for the explanatory variables.


The type of model used in probability estimation. Can be "none" - none, "fixed" - constant probability, "general" - the general Beta model with two parameters, "odds-ratio" - the Odds-ratio model with b=1 in Beta distribution, "inverse-odds-ratio" - the model with a=1 in Beta distribution, "direct" - the TSB-like (Teunter et al., 2011) probability update mechanism a+b=1, "auto" - the automatically selected type of occurrence model.

The type of model used in the occurrence is equal to the one provided in the model parameter.

Also, a model produced using oes or alm function can be used here.


what density function to assume for the error term. The full name of the distribution should be provided, starting with the letter "d" - "density". The names align with the names of distribution functions in R. For example, see dnorm. For detailed explanation of available distributions, see vignette in greybox package: vignette("greybox","alm").


The type of Loss Function used in optimization. loss can be:

  • likelihood - the model is estimated via the maximisation of the likelihood of the function specified in distribution;

  • MSE (Mean Squared Error),

  • MAE (Mean Absolute Error),

  • HAM (Half Absolute Moment),

  • LASSO - use LASSO to shrink the parameters of the model;

  • RIDGE - use RIDGE to shrink the parameters of the model;

  • TMSE - Trace Mean Squared Error,

  • GTMSE - Geometric Trace Mean Squared Error,

  • MSEh - optimisation using only h-steps ahead error,

  • MSCE - Mean Squared Cumulative Error.

In case of LASSO / RIDGE, the variables are not normalised prior to the estimation, but the parameters are divided by the mean values of explanatory variables.

Note that model selection and combination works properly only for the default loss="likelihood".

Furthermore, just for fun the absolute and half analogues of multistep estimators are available: MAEh, TMAE, GTMAE, MACE, HAMh, THAM, GTHAM, CHAM.

Last but not least, user can provide their own function here as well, making sure that it accepts parameters actual, fitted and B. Here is an example:

lossFunction <- function(actual, fitted, B) return(mean(abs(actual-fitted)))



Defines what to do with outliers: "ignore", so just returning the model, "detect" outliers based on specified level and include dummies for them in the model, or detect and "select" those of them that reduce ic value.


What confidence level to use for detection of outliers. The default is 99%. The specific bounds of confidence interval depend on the distribution used in the model.


The forecast horizon. Mainly needed for the multistep loss functions.


Logical. If TRUE, then the holdout of the size h is taken from the data (can be used for the model testing purposes).


Persistence vector g, containing smoothing parameters. If NULL, then estimated. Can be also passed as a names list of the type: persistence=list(level=0.1, trend=0.05, seasonal=c(0.1,0.2), xreg=c(0.1,0.2)). Dropping some elements from the named list will make the function estimate them. e.g. if you don't specify seasonal in the persistence for the ETS(M,N,M) model, it will be estimated.


Value of damping parameter. If NULL then it is estimated. Only applicable for damped-trend models.


Can be either character or a list, or a vector of initial states. If it is character, then it can be "optimal", meaning that the initial states are optimised, or "backcasting", meaning that the initials are produced using backcasting procedure (advised for data with high frequency). In case of the list, it is recommended to use the named one and to provide those initial components that are available. For example: initial=list(level=1000,trend=10,seasonal=list(c(1,2),c(1,2,3,4)), arima=1,xreg=100). If some of the components are needed by the model, but are not provided in the list, they will be estimated. If the vector is provided, then it is expected that the components will be provided one after another without any gaps.


Either the named list or a vector with AR / MA parameters ordered lag-wise. The number of elements should correspond to the specified orders e.g. orders=list(ar=c(1,1),ma=c(1,1)), lags=c(1,4), arma=list(ar=c(0.9,0.8),ma=c(-0.3,0.3))


The information criterion to use in the model selection / combination procedure.


The type of bounds for the persistence to use in the model estimation. Can be either admissible - guaranteeing the stability of the model, traditional - restricting the values with (0, 1) or none - no restrictions (potentially dangerous).


Specifies, whether to provide the progress of the function or not. If TRUE, then the function will print what it does and how much it has already done.


Other non-documented parameters. For example, FI=TRUE will make the function also produce Fisher Information matrix, which then can be used to calculated variances of smoothing parameters and initial states of the model. This is calculated based on the hessian of log-likelihood function and accepts stepSize parameter, determining how it is calculated. The default value is stepSize=.Machine$double.eps^(1/4). This is used in the vcov method. Starting values of parameters can be passed via B, while the upper and lower bounds should be passed in ub and lb respectively. In this case they will be used for optimisation. These values should have the length equal to the number of parameters to estimate in the following order:

  1. All smoothing parameters (for the states and then for the explanatory variables);

  2. Damping parameter (if needed);

  3. ARMA parameters;

  4. All the initial values (for the states and then for the explanatory variables).

You can also pass parameters to the optimiser in order to fine tune its work:

  • maxeval - maximum number of evaluations to carry out. The default is 40 per estimated parameter for ETS and / or ARIMA and at least 1000 if explanatory variables are introduced in the model (100 per parameter for explanatory variables, but not less than 1000);

  • maxtime - stop, when the optimisation time (in seconds) exceeds this;

  • xtol_rel - the relative precision of the optimiser (the default is 1E-6);

  • xtol_abs - the absolute precision of the optimiser (the default is 1E-8);

  • ftol_rel - the stopping criterion in case of the relative change in the loss function (the default is 1E-8);

  • ftol_abs - the stopping criterion in case of the absolute change in the loss function (the default is 0 - not used);

  • algorithm - the algorithm to use in optimisation (by default, "NLOPT_LN_SBPLX" is used);

  • print_level - the level of output for the optimiser (0 by default). If equal to 41, then the detailed results of the optimisation are returned.

You can read more about these parameters by running the function nloptr.print.options. Finally, the parameter lambda for LASSO / RIDGE, alpha for the Asymmetric Laplace, shape for the Generalised Normal and nu for Student's distributions can be provided here as well.


If TRUE, the estimation of ADAM models is done in parallel (used in auto.adam only). If the number is provided (e.g. parallel=41), then the specified number of cores is set up. WARNING! Packages foreach and either doMC (Linux and Mac only) or doParallel are needed in order to run the function in parallel.


The model previously estimated using adam() function.


Function estimates ADAM in a form of the Single Source of Error state space model of the following type:

y_{t} = o_t (w(v_{t-l}) + h(x_t, a_{t-1}) + r(v_{t-l}) ε_{t})

v_{t} = f(v_{t-l}, a_{t-1}) + g(v_{t-l}, a_{t-1}, x_{t}) ε_{t}

Where o_{t} is the Bernoulli distributed random variable (in case of normal data it equals to 1 for all observations), v_{t} is the state vector and l is the vector of lags, x_t is the vector of exogenous variables. w(.) is the measurement function, r(.) is the error function, f(.) is the transition function, g(.) is the persistence function and a_t is the vector of parameters for exogenous variables. Finally, ε_{t} is the error term.

The implemented model allows introducing several seasonal states and supports intermittent data via the occurrence variable.

The error term ε_t can follow different distributions, which are regulated via the distribution parameter. This includes:

  1. default - Normal distribution is used for the Additive error models, Gamma is used for the Multiplicative error models.

  2. dnorm - Normal distribution,

  3. dlaplace - Laplace distribution,

  4. ds - S distribution,

  5. dgnorm - Generalised Normal distribution,

  6. dlnorm - Log-Normal distribution,

  7. dgamma - Gamma distribution,

  8. dinvgauss - Inverse Gaussian distribution,

For some more information about the model and its implementation, see the vignette: vignette("adam","smooth"). The more detailed explanation of ADAM is provided by Svetunkov (2021).

The function auto.adam() tries out models with the specified distributions and returns the one with the most suitable one based on selected information criterion.

sm.adam method estimates the scale model for the already estimated adam. In order for ADAM to take the SM model into account, the latter needs to be recorded in the former, amending the likelihood and the number of degrees of freedom. This can be done using implant method.


Object of class "adam" is returned. It contains the list of the following values:

  • model - the name of the constructed model,

  • timeElapsed - the time elapsed for the estimation of the model,

  • data - the in-sample part of the data used for the training of the model. Includes the actual values in the first column,

  • holdout - the holdout part of the data, excluded for purposes of model evaluation,

  • fitted - the vector of fitted values,

  • residuals - the vector of residuals,

  • forecast - the point forecast for h steps ahead (by default NA is returned). NOTE that these do not always correspond to the conditional expectations for ETS models. See ADAM textbook, Section 6.4. for details (,

  • states - the matrix of states with observations in rows and states in columns,

  • persisten - the vector of smoothing parameters,

  • phi - the value of damping parameter,

  • transition - the transition matrix,

  • measurement - the measurement matrix with observations in rows and state elements in columns,

  • initial - the named list of initial values, including level, trend, seasonal, ARIMA and xreg components,

  • initialEstimated - the named vector, defining which of the initials were estimated in the model,

  • initialType - the type of initialisation used ("optimal" / "backcasting" / "provided"),

  • orders - the orders of ARIMA used in the estimation,

  • constant - the value of the constant (if it was included),

  • arma - the list of AR / MA parameters used in the model,

  • nParam - the matrix of the estimated / provided parameters,

  • occurrence - the oes model used for the occurrence part of the model,

  • formula - the formula used for the explanatory variables expansion,

  • loss - the type of loss function used in the estimation,

  • lossValue - the value of that loss function,

  • logLik - the value of the log-likelihood,

  • distribution - the distribution function used in the calculation of the likelihood,

  • scale - the value of the scale parameter,

  • lambda - the value of the parameter used in LASSO / dalaplace / dt,

  • B - the vector of all estimated parameters,

  • lags - the vector of lags used in the model construction,

  • lagsAll - the vector of the internal lags used in the model,

  • profile - the matrix with the profile used in the construction of the model,

  • profileInitial - the matrix with the initial profile (for the before the sample values),

  • call - the call used in the evaluation,

  • bounds - the type of bounds used in the process,

  • other - the list with other parameters, such as shape for distributions or ARIMA polynomials.


Ivan Svetunkov,


  • Snyder, R. D., 1985. Recursive Estimation of Dynamic Linear Models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B (Methodological) 47 (2), 272-276.

  • Hyndman, R.J., Koehler, A.B., Ord, J.K., and Snyder, R.D. (2008) Forecasting with exponential smoothing: the state space approach, Springer-Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-71918-2.

  • Svetunkov Ivan and Boylan John E. (2017). Multiplicative State-Space Models for Intermittent Time Series. Working Paper of Department of Management Science, Lancaster University, 2017:4 , 1-43.

  • Teunter R., Syntetos A., Babai Z. (2011). Intermittent demand: Linking forecasting to inventory obsolescence. European Journal of Operational Research, 214, 606-615.

  • Croston, J. (1972) Forecasting and stock control for intermittent demands. Operational Research Quarterly, 23(3), 289-303.

  • Syntetos, A., Boylan J. (2005) The accuracy of intermittent demand estimates. International Journal of Forecasting, 21(2), 303-314.

  • Kolassa, S. (2011) Combining exponential smoothing forecasts using Akaike weights. International Journal of Forecasting, 27, pp 238 - 251.

  • Taylor, J.W. and Bunn, D.W. (1999) A Quantile Regression Approach to Generating Prediction Intervals. Management Science, Vol 45, No 2, pp 225-237.

  • Lichtendahl Kenneth C., Jr., Grushka-Cockayne Yael, Winkler Robert L., (2013) Is It Better to Average Probabilities or Quantiles? Management Science 59(7):1594-1611. DOI: doi: 10.1287/mnsc.1120.1667

See Also

es, msarima


### The main examples are provided in the adam vignette, check it out via:
## Not run: vignette("adam","smooth")

# Model selection using a specified pool of models
ourModel <- adam(rnorm(100,100,10), model=c("ANN","ANA","AAA"), lags=c(5,10))

plot(ourModel, c(1:11))

# Model combination using a specified pool
ourModel <- adam(rnorm(100,100,10), model=c("ANN","AAN","MNN","CCC"),

ourModel <- adam(rnorm(100,100,10), model="NNN",
                          lags=c(1,4), orders=list(ar=c(1,0),i=c(1,0),ma=c(1,1)))

ourModel <- auto.adam(rnorm(100,100,10), model="ZZN", lags=c(1,4),

smooth documentation built on March 30, 2022, 5:06 p.m.