fit_resamples: Fit multiple models via resampling

View source: R/resample.R

fit_resamplesR Documentation

Fit multiple models via resampling


fit_resamples() computes a set of performance metrics across one or more resamples. It does not perform any tuning (see tune_grid() and tune_bayes() for that), and is instead used for fitting a single model+recipe or model+formula combination across many resamples.


fit_resamples(object, ...)

## S3 method for class 'model_spec'
  metrics = NULL,
  eval_time = NULL,
  control = control_resamples()

## S3 method for class 'workflow'
  metrics = NULL,
  eval_time = NULL,
  control = control_resamples()



A parsnip model specification or an unfitted workflow(). No tuning parameters are allowed; if arguments have been marked with tune(), their values must be finalized.


Currently unused.


A traditional model formula or a recipe created using recipes::recipe().


An rset resampling object created from an rsample function, such as rsample::vfold_cv().


A yardstick::metric_set(), or NULL to compute a standard set of metrics.


A numeric vector of time points where dynamic event time metrics should be computed (e.g. the time-dependent ROC curve, etc). The values must be non-negative and should probably be no greater than the largest event time in the training set (See Details below).


A control_resamples() object used to fine tune the resampling process.

Case Weights

Some models can utilize case weights during training. tidymodels currently supports two types of case weights: importance weights (doubles) and frequency weights (integers). Frequency weights are used during model fitting and evaluation, whereas importance weights are only used during fitting.

To know if your model is capable of using case weights, create a model spec and test it using parsnip::case_weights_allowed().

To use them, you will need a numeric column in your data set that has been passed through either hardhat:: importance_weights() or hardhat::frequency_weights().

For functions such as fit_resamples() and the ⁠tune_*()⁠ functions, the model must be contained inside of a workflows::workflow(). To declare that case weights are used, invoke workflows::add_case_weights() with the corresponding (unquoted) column name.

From there, the packages will appropriately handle the weights during model fitting and (if appropriate) performance estimation.

Censored Regression Models

Three types of metrics can be used to assess the quality of censored regression models:

  • static: the prediction is independent of time.

  • dynamic: the prediction is a time-specific probability (e.g., survival probability) and is measured at one or more particular times.

  • integrated: same as the dynamic metric but returns the integral of the different metrics from each time point.

Which metrics are chosen by the user affects how many evaluation times should be specified. For example:

# Needs no `eval_time` value

# Needs at least one `eval_time`
metric_set(brier_survival, concordance_survival)

# Needs at least two eval_time` values
metric_set(brier_survival_integrated, concordance_survival)
metric_set(brier_survival_integrated, concordance_survival)
metric_set(brier_survival_integrated, concordance_survival, brier_survival)

Values of eval_time should be less than the largest observed event time in the training data. For many non-parametric models, the results beyond the largest time corresponding to an event are constant (or NA).

Performance Metrics

To use your own performance metrics, the yardstick::metric_set() function can be used to pick what should be measured for each model. If multiple metrics are desired, they can be bundled. For example, to estimate the area under the ROC curve as well as the sensitivity and specificity (under the typical probability cutoff of 0.50), the metrics argument could be given:

  metrics = metric_set(roc_auc, sens, spec)

Each metric is calculated for each candidate model.

If no metric set is provided, one is created:

  • For regression models, the root mean squared error and coefficient of determination are computed.

  • For classification, the area under the ROC curve and overall accuracy are computed.

Note that the metrics also determine what type of predictions are estimated during tuning. For example, in a classification problem, if metrics are used that are all associated with hard class predictions, the classification probabilities are not created.

The out-of-sample estimates of these metrics are contained in a list column called .metrics. This tibble contains a row for each metric and columns for the value, the estimator type, and so on.

collect_metrics() can be used for these objects to collapse the results over the resampled (to obtain the final resampling estimates per tuning parameter combination).

Obtaining Predictions

When control_grid(save_pred = TRUE), the output tibble contains a list column called .predictions that has the out-of-sample predictions for each parameter combination in the grid and each fold (which can be very large).

The elements of the tibble are tibbles with columns for the tuning parameters, the row number from the original data object (.row), the outcome data (with the same name(s) of the original data), and any columns created by the predictions. For example, for simple regression problems, this function generates a column called .pred and so on. As noted above, the prediction columns that are returned are determined by the type of metric(s) requested.

This list column can be unnested using tidyr::unnest() or using the convenience function collect_predictions().

Extracting Information

The extract control option will result in an additional function to be returned called .extracts. This is a list column that has tibbles containing the results of the user's function for each tuning parameter combination. This can enable returning each model and/or recipe object that is created during resampling. Note that this could result in a large return object, depending on what is returned.

The control function contains an option (extract) that can be used to retain any model or recipe that was created within the resamples. This argument should be a function with a single argument. The value of the argument that is given to the function in each resample is a workflow object (see workflows::workflow() for more information). Several helper functions can be used to easily pull out the preprocessing and/or model information from the workflow, such as extract_preprocessor() and extract_fit_parsnip().

As an example, if there is interest in getting each parsnip model fit back, one could use:

  extract = function (x) extract_fit_parsnip(x)

Note that the function given to the extract argument is evaluated on every model that is fit (as opposed to every model that is evaluated). As noted above, in some cases, model predictions can be derived for sub-models so that, in these cases, not every row in the tuning parameter grid has a separate R object associated with it.

See Also

control_resamples(), collect_predictions(), collect_metrics()



folds <- vfold_cv(mtcars, v = 5)

spline_rec <- recipe(mpg ~ ., data = mtcars) %>%
  step_ns(disp) %>%

lin_mod <- linear_reg() %>%

control <- control_resamples(save_pred = TRUE)

spline_res <- fit_resamples(lin_mod, spline_rec, folds, control = control)


show_best(spline_res, metric = "rmse")

# You can also wrap up a preprocessor and a model into a workflow, and
# supply that to `fit_resamples()` instead. Here, a workflows "variables"
# preprocessor is used, which lets you supply terms using dplyr selectors.
# The variables are used as-is, no preprocessing is done to them.
wf <- workflow() %>%
  add_variables(outcomes = mpg, predictors = everything()) %>%

wf_res <- fit_resamples(wf, folds)

tune documentation built on May 29, 2024, 7:32 a.m.