historic_sim: Two Arm Bayesian Clinical Trial Simulation with Historical...

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Examples

View source: R/BayesCTDesigncode.R

Description

historic_sim() returns an object of class bayes_ctd_array, which will contain simulation results for power, statistic estimation, bias, variance, and mse as requested by user.

Usage

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historic_sim(trial_reps = 100, outcome_type = "weibull",
  subj_per_arm = c(50, 100, 150, 200, 250), a0_vals = c(0, 0.33, 0.67,
  1), effect_vals = c(0.6, 1, 1.4), rand_control_diff = c(0.8, 1, 1.2),
  hist_control_data = NULL, time_vec = NULL, censor_value = NULL,
  alpha = 0.05, get_var = FALSE, get_bias = FALSE, get_mse = FALSE,
  seedval = NULL, quietly = TRUE)

Arguments

trial_reps

Number of trials to replicate within each combination of a0_vals, subj_per_arm, effect_vals, and rand_control_parms. As the number of trials increases, the precision of the estimate will increase. Default is 100.

outcome_type

Outcome distribution. Must be equal to weibull, lognormal, pwe (Piecewise Exponential), gaussian, bernoulli, or poisson. Default is weibull.

subj_per_arm

A vector of sample sizes, all of which must be positive integers. Default is c(50, 100, 150, 200, 250).

a0_vals

A vector of power prior parameters ranging from 0 to 1, where 0 implies no information from historical data should be used, and 1 implies all of the information from historical data should be used. A value between 0 and 1 implies that a proportion of the information from historical data will be used. Default is c(0, 0.33, 0.67, 1).

effect_vals

A vector of effects that should be reasonable for the outcome_type being studied, hazard ratios for Weibull, odds ratios for Bernoulli, mean ratios for Poisson, etc.. When effect_vals contain the null effect for a given outcome_type, the power component of data will contain an estimate of Type One Error. In order to have a good set of Type One Error estimates, trial_reps need to be at least 10,000. In such a case, if the total number of combinations made up from subj_per_arm, a0_vals, effect_vals, and rand_control_diff is very large, the time to complete the simulation can be substantial. Default is c(0.6, 1, 1.4).

rand_control_diff

For piecewise exponential and Weibull outcomes, this is a vector of hazard ratios (randomized controls over historical controls) representing differences between historical and randomized controls. For lognormal and Poisson outcomes, this is a vector of mean ratios (randomized controls over historical controls). For a Bernoulli outcome, this is a vector of odds ratios (randomized controls over historical controls). For a Gaussian outcome, this is a vector of mean differences (randomized minus historical controls). Default is c(0.8, 1, 1.2).

hist_control_data

A dataset of historical data. Default is NULL. For survival outcomes, historical datasets must have 4 columns: id, treatment, event_time, and status. The value of treatment should be 0. For other outcomes, historical datasets must have columns: id, treatment, and y.

time_vec

A vector of time values which are used to create time periods within which the exponential hazard is constant. Only used for piecewise exponential models. Default is NULL.

censor_value

A single value at which right censoring occurs when simulating randomized subject outcomes. Used with survival outcomes. Default is NULL, where NULL implies no right censoring.

alpha

A number ranging between 0 and 1 that defines the acceptable Type 1 error rate. Default is 0.05.

get_var

A TRUE/FALSE indicator of whether an array of variance estimates will be returned. Default is FALSE.

get_bias

A TRUE/FALSE indicator of whether an array of bias estimates will be returned. Default is FALSE.

get_mse

A TRUE/FALSE indicator of whether an array of MSE estimates will be returned. Default is FALSE.

seedval

A seed value for pseudo-random number generation.

quietly

A TRUE/FALSE indicator of whether notes are printed to output about simulation progress as the simulation runs. If running interactively in RStudio or running in the R console, quietly can be set to FALSE. If running in a Notebook or knitr document, quietly needs to be set to TRUE. Otherwise each note will be printed on a separate line and it will take up a lot of output space. Default is TRUE.

Details

The object bayes_ctd_array has 6 elements: a list containing simulation results (data), copies of the 4 function arguments subj_per_arm, a0_vals, effect_vals, and rand_control_diff, and finally a objtype value indicating that historic_sim() was used. Each element of data is a four-dimensional array, where each dimension is determined by the length of parameters subj_per_arm, a0_vals, effect_vals, and rand_control_diff. The size of data depends on which results are requested by the user. At a minimum, at least one of subj_per_arm, a0_vals, effect_vals, or rand_control_diff must contain at least 2 values, while the other three must contain at least 1 value. The data list will always contain two elements: an array of power results (power) and an array of estimation results (est). In addition to power and est, data may also contain elements var, bias, or mse, depending on the values of get_var, get_bias, and get_mse. The values returned in est are in the form of hazard ratios, mean ratios, odds ratios, or mean differences depending on the value of outcome_type. For a Gaussian outcome, the estimation results are differences in group means (experimental group minus control group). For a logistic outcome, the estimation results are odds ratios (experimental group over control group). For lognormal and Poisson outcomes, the estimation results are mean ratios (experimental group over control group). For a piecewise exponential or a Weibull outcome, the estimation results are hazard ratios (experimental group over control group). The values returned in bias, var, and mse are on the scale of the values returned in est.

The object bayes_ctd_array has two methods, print_table() and plot_table(), for printing and plotting slices of the arrays contained in bayes_ctd_array$data. As dimensions of the four dimensional array increases, the time required to complete the simulation will increase; however, it will be faster than a similar simulation based on repeated calls to MCMC routines to analyze each simulated trial.

The meaning of the estimation results, and the test used to generate power results, depends on the outcome used. In all cases, power is based on a two-sided test involving a (1-alpha)100% credible interval, where the interval is used to determine if the null hypothesis should be rejected (null value outside of the interval) or not rejected (null value inside the interval). For a Gaussian outcome, the 95% credible interval is an interval for the difference in group means (experimental group minus control group), and the test determines if 0 is in or outside of the interval. For a Bernoulli outcome, the 95% credible interval is an interval for the odds ratio (experimental group over control group), and the test determines if 1 is in or outside of the interval. For a lognormal or a Poisson outcome, the 95% credible interval is an interval for the mean ratio (experimental group over control group), and the test determines if 1 is in or outside of the interval. Finally, for a piecewise exponential or a Weibull outcome, the 95% credible interval is an interval for the hazard ratio (experimental group over control group), and the test determines if 1 is in or outside of the interval.

Please refer to the examples for illustration of package use.

Value

historic_sim() returns an S3 object of class bayes_ctd_array. As noted in details, an object of class bayes_ctd_array has 6 elements: a list of simulation results (data), copies of the 4 function arguments subj_per_arm, a0_vals, effect_vals, and rand_control_diff, and finally objtype indicating that historic_sim() was used. See details for a discussion about the contents of data. Results from the simulation contained in the bayes_ctd_array object can be printed or plotted using the print_table() and plot_table() methods. The results can also be accessed using basic list element identification and array slicing. For example, to get the 4-dimensional array of power results from a simulation, one could use the code bayes_ctd_array$data$power, where bayes_ctd_array is replaced with the name of the variable containing the bayes_ctd_array object. If one wanted a table of power for sample size by a0, while holding effect equal to the first considered value and control differences equal to the second considered value, then the code is bayes_ctd_array$data$power[,,1,2], where bayes_ctd_array is replaced with the name of the variable containing the bayes_ctd_array object.

Examples

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#Generate a sample of historical data for use in example.
set.seed(2250)
SampleHistData <- genweibulldata(sample_size=60, scale1=2.82487,
                                 hazard_ratio=0.6, common_shape=3,
                                 censor_value=3)
histdata <- subset(SampleHistData, subset=(treatment==0))
histdata$id <- histdata$id+10000

#Run a Weibull simulation, using historic_sim().
#For meaningful results, trial_reps needs to be much larger than 2.
weibull_test <- historic_sim(trial_reps = 2, outcome_type = "weibull",
                             subj_per_arm = c(50, 100, 150),
                             a0_vals = c(0, 0.50, 1),
                             effect_vals = c(0.6, 1),
                             rand_control_diff = c(0.8, 1),
                             hist_control_data = histdata, time_vec = NULL,
                             censor_value = 3, alpha = 0.05, get_var = TRUE,
                             get_bias = TRUE, get_mse = TRUE, seedval=123,
                             quietly=TRUE)

#Tabulate the simulation results for power.
test_table <- print_table(bayes_ctd_array=weibull_test, measure="power",
                          tab_type="WX|YZ", effect_val=0.6,
                          rand_control_diff_val=1.0)
print(test_table)


#Create a plot of the power simulation results.
plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=weibull_test, measure="power", tab_type="WX|YZ",
           smooth=FALSE, plot_out=TRUE, effect_val=0.6,
           rand_control_diff_val=1.0)
#Create a plot of the estimated hazard ratio simulation results.
plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=weibull_test, measure="est", tab_type="WX|YZ",
           smooth=FALSE, plot_out=TRUE, effect_val=0.6,
           rand_control_diff_val=1.0)
#Create a plot of the hazard ratio variance simulation results.
plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=weibull_test, measure="var", tab_type="WX|YZ",
           smooth=FALSE, plot_out=TRUE, effect_val=0.6,
           rand_control_diff_val=1.0)
#Create a plot of the hazard ratio bias simulation results.
plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=weibull_test, measure="bias", tab_type="WX|YZ",
           smooth=FALSE, plot_out=TRUE, effect_val=0.6,
           rand_control_diff_val=1.0)
#Create a plot of the hazard ratio mse simulation results.
plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=weibull_test, measure="mse", tab_type="WX|YZ",
           smooth=FALSE, plot_out=TRUE, effect_val=0.6,
           rand_control_diff_val=1.0)

#Create other power plots using different values for tab_type
plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=weibull_test, measure="power", tab_type="XY|WZ",
           smooth=FALSE, plot_out=TRUE, subj_per_arm_val=150,
           rand_control_diff_val=1.0)

plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=weibull_test, measure="power", tab_type="XZ|WY",
           smooth=FALSE, plot_out=TRUE, subj_per_arm_val=150, effect_val=0.6)

plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=weibull_test, measure="power", tab_type="YZ|WX",
           smooth=FALSE, plot_out=TRUE, subj_per_arm_val=150, a0_val=0.5)

plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=weibull_test, measure="power", tab_type="WY|XZ",
           smooth=FALSE, plot_out=TRUE, rand_control_diff_val=1, a0_val=0.5)

plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=weibull_test, measure="power", tab_type="WZ|XY",
           smooth=FALSE, plot_out=TRUE, effect_val=0.6, a0_val=0.5)



#Run Poisson simulation, using historic_sim(), but set two design characteristic
# parameters to only 1 value.
#Note: historic_sim() can take a while to run.
#Generate a sample of historical poisson data for use in example.
set.seed(2250)
samplehistdata <- genpoissondata(sample_size=60, mu1=1, mean_ratio=1.0)
histdata <- subset(samplehistdata, subset=(treatment==0))
histdata$id <- histdata$id+10000

#For meaningful results, trial_reps needs to be larger than 100.
poisson_test <- historic_sim(trial_reps = 100, outcome_type = "poisson",
                              subj_per_arm = c(50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250),
                              a0_vals = c(1),
                              effect_vals = c(0.6),
                              rand_control_diff = c(0.6, 1, 1.6),
                              hist_control_data = histdata, time_vec = NULL,
                              censor_value = 3, alpha = 0.05, get_var = TRUE,
                              get_bias = TRUE, get_mse = TRUE, seedval=123,
                              quietly=TRUE)

#Tabulate the simulation results for power.
test_table <- print_table(bayes_ctd_array=poisson_test, measure="power",
                          tab_type=NULL)
print(test_table)

#Create a plot of the power simulation results.
plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=poisson_test, measure="power", tab_type=NULL,
           smooth=FALSE, plot_out=TRUE)



#At least one of subj_per_arm, a0_vals, effect_vals, or rand_control_diff
#must contain at least 2 values.
#Generate a sample of historical lognormal data for use in example.
set.seed(2250)
samplehistdata <- genlognormaldata(sample_size=60, mu1=1.06, mean_ratio=0.6, common_sd=1.25,
                                   censor_value=3)
histdata <- subset(samplehistdata, subset=(treatment==0))
histdata$id <- histdata$id+10000

#Run a Lognormal simulation, using historic_sim().
#For meaningful results, trial_reps needs to be larger than 100.
lognormal_test <- historic_sim(trial_reps = 100, outcome_type = "lognormal",
                               subj_per_arm = c(25,50,75,100,125,150,175,200,225,250),
                               a0_vals = c(1.0),
                               effect_vals = c(0.6),
                               rand_control_diff = c(1.8),
                               hist_control_data = histdata, time_vec = NULL,
                               censor_value = 3, alpha = 0.05, get_var = TRUE,
                               get_bias = TRUE, get_mse = TRUE, seedval=123,
                               quietly=TRUE)

test_table <- print_table(bayes_ctd_array=lognormal_test, measure="power",
                          tab_type=NULL)
print(test_table)
#Create a plot of the power simulation results.
plot_table(bayes_ctd_array=lognormal_test, measure="power", tab_type=NULL,
           smooth=TRUE, plot_out=TRUE)

begglest/BayesCTDesign documentation built on Aug. 14, 2018, 4:31 a.m.