PSopt: Particle Swarm Optimisation

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples

Description

The function implements Particle Swarm Optimisation.

Usage

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PSopt(OF, algo = list(), ...)

Arguments

OF

the objective function to be minimised. See Details.

algo

a list with the settings for algorithm. See Details and Examples.

...

pieces of data required to evaluate the objective function. See Details.

Details

The function implements Particle Swarm Optimisation (PS); see the references for details on the implementation. PS is a population-based optimisation heuristic. It develops several solutions (a ‘population’) over a number of iterations. PS is directly applicable to continuous problems since the population is stored in real-valued vectors. In each iteration, a solution is updated by adding another vector called velocity. Think of a solution as a position in the search space, and of velocity as the direction into which this solution moves. Velocity changes over the course of the optimization: it is biased towards the best solution found by the particular solution and the best overall solution. The algorithm stops after a fixed number of iterations.

To allow for constraints, the evaluation works as follows: after a new solution is created, it is (i) repaired, (ii) evaluated through the objective function, (iii) penalised. Step (ii) is done by a call to OF; steps (i) and (iii) by calls to algo$repair and algo$pen. Step (i) and (iii) are optional, so the respective functions default to NULL. A penalty can also be directly written in the OF, since it amounts to a positive number added to the ‘clean’ objective function value. It can be advantageous to write a separate penalty function if either only the objective function or only the penalty function can be vectorised. (Constraints can also be added without these mechanisms. Solutions that violate constraints can, for instance, be mapped to feasible solutions, but without actually changing them. See Maringer and Oyewumi, 2007, for an example with Differential Evolution.)

Conceptually, PS consists of two loops: one loop across the iterations and, in any given generation, one loop across the solutions. This is the default, controlled by the variables algo$loopOF, algo$loopRepair, algo$loopPen and loopChangeV which all default to TRUE. But it does not matter in what order the solutions are evaluated (or repaired or penalised), so the second loop can be vectorised. Examples are given in the vignettes and in the book. The respective algo$loopFun must then be set to FALSE.

The objective function, the repair function and and the penalty function will be called as fun(solution, ...).

The list algo contains the following items:

nP

population size. Defaults to 100. Using default settings may not be a good idea.

nG

number of iterations. Defaults to 500. Using default settings may not be a good idea.

c1

the weight towards the individual's best solution. Typically between 0 and 2; defaults to 1. Using default settings may not be a good idea. In some cases, even negative values work well: the solution is then driven off its past best position. For ‘simple’ problems, setting c1 to zero may work well: the population moves then towards the best overall solution.

c2

the weight towards the populations's best solution. Typically between 0 and 2; defaults to 1. Using default settings may not be a good idea. In some cases, even negative values work well: the solution is then driven off the population's past best position.

iner

the inertia weight (a scalar), which reduces velocity. Typically between 0 and 1. Default is 0.9.

initV

the standard deviation of the initial velocities. Defaults to 1.

maxV

the maximum (absolute) velocity. Setting limits to velocity is sometimes called velocity clamping. Velocity is the change in a given solution in a given iteration. A maximum velocity can be set so to prevent unreasonable velocities (‘overshooting’): for instance, if a decision variable may lie between 0 and 1, then an absolute velocity much greater than 1 makes rarely sense.

min, max

vectors of minimum and maximum parameter values. The vectors min and max are used to determine the dimension of the problem and to randomly initialise the population. Per default, they are no constraints: a solution may well be outside these limits. Only if algo$minmaxConstr is TRUE will the algorithm repair solutions outside the min and max range.

minmaxConstr

if TRUE, algo$min and algo$max are considered constraints. Default is FALSE.

pen

a penalty function. Default is NULL (no penalty).

repair

a repair function. Default is NULL (no repairing).

changeV

a function to change velocity. Default is NULL (no change). This function is called before the velocity is added to the current solutions; it can be used to impose restrictions like changing only a number of decision variables.

initP

optional: the initial population. A matrix of size length(algo$min) times algo$nP, or a function that creates such a matrix. If a function, it should take no arguments.

loopOF

logical. Should the OF be evaluated through a loop? Defaults to TRUE.

loopPen

logical. Should the penalty function (if specified) be evaluated through a loop? Defaults to TRUE.

loopRepair

logical. Should the repair function (if specified) be evaluated through a loop? Defaults to TRUE.

loopChangeV

logical. Should the changeV function (if specified) be evaluated through a loop? Defaults to TRUE.

printDetail

If TRUE (the default), information is printed. If an integer i greater then one, information is printed at very ith iteration.

printBar

If TRUE (the default), a txtProgressBar (from package utils) is printed).

storeF

If TRUE (the default), the objective function values for every solution in every generation are stored and returned as matrix Fmat.

storeSolutions

default is FALSE. If TRUE, the solutions (ie, decision variables) in every generation are stored as lists P and Pbest, both stored in the list xlist which the function returns. To check, for instance, the solutions at the end of the ith iteration, retrieve xlist[[c(1L, i)]]; the best solutions at the end of this iteration are in xlist[[c(2L, i)]]. P[[i]] and Pbest[[i]] will be matrices of size length(algo$min) times algo$nP.

Value

Returns a list:

xbest

the solution

OFvalue

objective function value of best solution

popF

a vector: the objective function values in the final population

Fmat

if algo$storeF is TRUE, a matrix of size algo$nG times algo$nP. Each column contains the best objective function value found by the particular solution.

xlist

if algo$storeSolutions is TRUE, a list that contains two lists P and Pbest of matrices, and a matrix initP (the initial solution); else NA.

initial.state

the value of .Random.seed when PSopt was called.

Author(s)

Enrico Schumann

References

Eberhart, R.C. and Kennedy, J. (1995) A New Optimizer using Particle Swarm theory. Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Micromachine and Human Science, pp. 39–43.

Gilli, M., Maringer, D. and Schumann, E. (2011) Numerical Methods and Optimization in Finance. Elsevier. http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780123756626

Schumann, E. (2017) Financial Optimisation with R (NMOF Manual). http://enricoschumann.net/NMOF.htm#NMOFmanual

See Also

DEopt

Examples

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## Least Median of Squares (LMS) estimation
genData <- function(nP, nO, ol, dy) {
    ## create dataset as in Salibian-Barrera & Yohai 2006
    ## nP = regressors, nO  = number of obs
    ## ol = number of outliers, dy  = outlier size 
    mRN <- function(m, n) array(rnorm(m * n), dim = c(m, n))
    y <- mRN(nO, 1)
    X <- cbind(as.matrix(numeric(nO) + 1), mRN(nO, nP - 1L))
    zz <- sample(nO)
    z  <- cbind(1, 100, array(0, dim = c(1L, nP - 2L)))
    for (i in seq_len(ol)) {
        X[zz[i], ] <- z
        y[zz[i]] <- dy 
    }
    list(X = X, y = y)
}

OF <- function(param, data) {
    X <- data$X
    y <- data$y
    aux <- as.vector(y) - X %*% param
    ## as.vector(y) for recycling (param is a matrix)
    aux <- aux * aux
    aux <- apply(aux, 2, sort, partial = data$h)
    aux[h, ]
}

nP <- 2L; nO <- 100L; ol <- 10L; dy <- 150
aux <- genData(nP,nO,ol,dy); X <- aux$X; y <- aux$y

h <- (nO + nP + 1L) %/% 2
data <- list(y = y,X = X, h = h)

algo <- list(min = rep(-10, nP), max = rep( 10, nP),
    c1 = 1.0, c2 = 2.0,
    iner = 0.7, initV = 1, maxV = 3, 
    nP = 100L, nG = 300L, loopOF = FALSE)

system.time(sol <- PSopt(OF = OF, algo = algo, data = data))
if (require("MASS", quietly = TRUE)) {
    ## for nsamp = "best", in this case, complete enumeration 
    ## will be tried. See ?lqs
    system.time(test1 <- lqs(data$y ~ data$X[ ,-1L], 
            adjust = TRUE, 
            nsamp = "best", 
            method = "lqs", 
            quantile = data$h))
}
## check
x1 <- sort((y - X %*% as.matrix(sol$xbest))^2)[h]
cat("Particle Swarm\n",x1,"\n\n")

if (require("MASS", quietly = TRUE)) {
    x2 <- sort((y - X %*% as.matrix(coef(test1)))^2)[h]
    cat("lqs\n",x2,"\n\n")
}

enricoschumann/NMOF documentation built on June 5, 2019, 8:56 a.m.