Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples
Expands continuous variables into restricted cubic spline bases and
categorical variables into dummy variables and fits a multivariate
equation using canonical variates. This finds optimum transformations
that maximize R^2. Optionally, the bootstrap is used to estimate
the covariance matrix of both left and righthandside transformation
parameters, and to estimate the bias in the R^2 due to overfitting
and compute the bootstrap optimismcorrected R^2.
Crossvalidation can also be used to get an unbiased estimate of
R^2 but this is not as precise as the bootstrap estimate. The
bootstrap and crossvalidation may also used to get estimates of mean
and median absolute error in predicted values on the original y
scale. These two estimates are perhaps the best ones for gauging the
accuracy of a flexible model, because it is difficult to compare
R^2 under different ytransformations, and because R^2
allows for an outofsample recalibration (i.e., it only measures
relative errors).
Note that uncertainty about the proper transformation of y
causes
an enormous amount of model uncertainty. When the transformation for
y
is estimated from the data a high variance in predicted values
on the original y
scale may result, especially if the true
transformation is linear. Comparing bootstrap or crossvalidated mean
absolute errors with and without restricted the y
transform to be
linear (ytype='l'
) may help the analyst choose the proper model
complexity.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  areg(x, y, xtype = NULL, ytype = NULL, nk = 4,
B = 0, na.rm = TRUE, tolerance = NULL, crossval = NULL)
## S3 method for class 'areg'
print(x, digits=4, ...)
## S3 method for class 'areg'
plot(x, whichx = 1:ncol(x$x), ...)
## S3 method for class 'areg'
predict(object, x, type=c('lp','fitted','x'),
what=c('all','sample'), ...)

x 
A single predictor or a matrix of predictors. Categorical
predictors are required to be coded as integers (as 
y 
a 
xtype 
a vector of oneletter character codes specifying how each predictor
is to be modeled, in order of columns of 
ytype 
same coding as for 
nk 
number of knots, 0 for linear, or 3 or more. Default is 4 which will fit 3 parameters to continuous variables (one linear term and two nonlinear terms) 
B 
number of bootstrap resamples used to estimate covariance matrices of transformation parameters. Default is no bootstrapping. 
na.rm 
set to 
tolerance 
singularity tolerance. List source code for

crossval 
set to a positive integer k to compute kfold crossvalidated Rsquared (square of first canonical correlation) and mean and median absolute error of predictions on the original scale 
digits 
number of digits to use in formatting for printing 
object 
an object created by 
whichx 
integer or character vector specifying which predictors
are to have their transformations plotted (default is all). The

type 
tells 
what 
When the 
... 
arguments passed to the plot function. 
areg
is a competitor of ace
in the acepack
package. Transformations from ace
are seldom smooth enough and
are often overfitted. With areg
the complexity can be controlled
with the nk
parameter, and predicted values are easy to obtain
because parametric functions are fitted.
If one side of the equation has a categorical variable with more than two categories and the other side has a continuous variable not assumed to act linearly, larger sample sizes are needed to reliably estimate transformations, as it is difficult to optimally score categorical variables to maximize R^2 against a simultaneously optimally transformed continuous variable.
a list of class "areg"
containing many objects
Frank Harrell
Department of Biostatistics
Vanderbilt University
[email protected]
Breiman and Friedman, Journal of the American Statistical Association (September, 1985).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  set.seed(1)
ns < c(30,300,3000)
for(n in ns) {
y < sample(1:5, n, TRUE)
x < abs(y3) + runif(n)
par(mfrow=c(3,4))
for(k in c(0,3:5)) {
z < areg(x, y, ytype='c', nk=k)
plot(x, z$tx)
title(paste('R2=',format(z$rsquared)))
tapply(z$ty, y, range)
a < tapply(x,y,mean)
b < tapply(z$ty,y,mean)
plot(a,b)
abline(lsfit(a,b))
# Should get same result to within linear transformation if reverse x and y
w < areg(y, x, xtype='c', nk=k)
plot(z$ty, w$tx)
title(paste('R2=',format(w$rsquared)))
abline(lsfit(z$ty, w$tx))
}
}
par(mfrow=c(2,2))
# Example where one category in y differs from others but only in variance of x
n < 50
y < sample(1:5,n,TRUE)
x < rnorm(n)
x[y==1] < rnorm(sum(y==1), 0, 5)
z < areg(x,y,xtype='l',ytype='c')
z
plot(z)
z < areg(x,y,ytype='c')
z
plot(z)
## Not run:
# Examine overfitting when true transformations are linear
par(mfrow=c(4,3))
for(n in c(200,2000)) {
x < rnorm(n); y < rnorm(n) + x
for(nk in c(0,3,5)) {
z < areg(x, y, nk=nk, crossval=10, B=100)
print(z)
plot(z)
title(paste('n=',n))
}
}
par(mfrow=c(1,1))
# Underfitting when true transformation is quadratic but overfitting
# when y is allowed to be transformed
set.seed(49)
n < 200
x < rnorm(n); y < rnorm(n) + .5*x^2
#areg(x, y, nk=0, crossval=10, B=100)
#areg(x, y, nk=4, ytype='l', crossval=10, B=100)
z < areg(x, y, nk=4) #, crossval=10, B=100)
z
# Plot x vs. predicted value on original scale. Since ytransform is
# not monotonic, there are multiple yinverses
xx < seq(3.5,3.5,length=1000)
yhat < predict(z, xx, type='fitted')
plot(x, y, xlim=c(3.5,3.5))
for(j in 1:ncol(yhat)) lines(xx, yhat[,j], col=j)
# Plot a random sample of possible y inverses
yhats < predict(z, xx, type='fitted', what='sample')
points(xx, yhats, pch=2)
## End(Not run)
# True transformation of x1 is quadratic, y is linear
n < 200
x1 < rnorm(n); x2 < rnorm(n); y < rnorm(n) + x1^2
z < areg(cbind(x1,x2),y,xtype=c('s','l'),nk=3)
par(mfrow=c(2,2))
plot(z)
# y transformation is inverse quadratic but areg gets the same answer by
# making x1 quadratic
n < 5000
x1 < rnorm(n); x2 < rnorm(n); y < (x1 + rnorm(n))^2
z < areg(cbind(x1,x2),y,nk=5)
par(mfrow=c(2,2))
plot(z)
# Overfit 20 predictors when no true relationships exist
n < 1000
x < matrix(runif(n*20),n,20)
y < rnorm(n)
z < areg(x, y, nk=5) # add crossval=4 to expose the problem
# Test predict function
n < 50
x < rnorm(n)
y < rnorm(n) + x
g < sample(1:3, n, TRUE)
z < areg(cbind(x,g),y,xtype=c('s','c'))
range(predict(z, cbind(x,g))  z$linear.predictors)

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