plotspres: 'plotspres' generates forest plots showing _SPRE_ statistics.

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Methods (by class) See Also Examples

View source: R/driver_generate_forestplot_incl_spres.R

Description

Forest plots showing SPRE (standardised predicted random-effects) statistics can be useful in highlighting overly influential outlier studies with the potential to inflate summary effect estimates in genetic association meta-analyses.

Usage

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plotspres(beta_in, se_in, study_names_in, variant_names_in, spres_in, ...)

## Default S3 method:
plotspres(beta_in, se_in, study_names_in,
  variant_names_in, spres_in, spre_colour_palette = c("mono_colour",
  "black"), set_studyNOs_as_studyIDs = FALSE,
  set_study_field_width = "%02.0f", set_cex = 0.66, set_xlim,
  set_ylim, set_at, tau2_method = "DL", adjust_labels = 1,
  save_plot = TRUE, verbose_output = FALSE, ...)

Arguments

beta_in

A numeric vector of observed study effects e.g. log odds-ratios.

se_in

A numeric vector of standard errors, genomically corrected at study-level.

study_names_in

A character vector of study names.

variant_names_in

A character vector of variant names e.g. rsIDs.

spres_in

A numeric vector of SPRE statistics.

...

other arguments.

spre_colour_palette

An optional character vector specifying the colour palette that should be used for observed study effects. There are 3 types of colour palettes available, namely: "mono_colour", "dual_colour" and "multi_colour"; with the "dual_colour" palette, observed study effects with negative SPRE statistics are coloured differently from those with positive SPRE statistics, and with the "multi_colour" palette observed study effects are colored in a gradient according to the SPRE statistic values. Default palette option is spre_colour_palette = c("mono_colour", "black").

set_studyNOs_as_studyIDs

An optional boolean specifying whether study numbers should be used as study IDs in the forest plot. Default is FALSE.

set_study_field_width

An optional character vector of format strings, akin to the fmt character vector in the sprintf function. (Default is set_study_field_width = "%02.0f").

set_cex

An optional character scalar and symbol expansion factor indicating the percentage by which text and symbols should be scaled relative to the reference; e.g. 1=reference, 1.3 is 30% larger, 0.3 is 30% smaller. (Default is cex = 0.66).

set_xlim

An optional numeric vector of length 2 indicating the horizontal limits of the plot region.

set_ylim

An optional numeric vector of length 2 indicating the y-axis limits of the plot.

set_at

An optional numeric vector indicating position of the x-axis tick marks and corresponding labels.

tau2_method

An optional character scalar, specifying the method that should be used to estimate heterogeneity either through DerSimonian and Laird's moment-based estimate "DL" or restricted maximum likelihood "REML". Note: The REML method uses the iterative Fisher scoring algorithm (step length = 0.5, maximum iterations = 10000) to estimate tau2. Default is "DL".

adjust_labels

An optional numeric scalar value that tweaks label (column header) positions. (Default is adjust_labels = 1).

save_plot

An optional boolean to save forestplot as a tiff file. Default is TRUE.

verbose_output

An optional boolean to display intermediate output. (Default is FALSE).

Details

plotspres takes as input SPRE statistics, observed study effects and corresponding standard errors (i.e. summary data). The observed study effects (i.e. study effect-size estimates) could be association statistics from either quantitative or binary trait meta-analyses, for instance, linear regression coefficients might be employed for quantitative traits and log-transformed logistic regression coefficients (per-allele log odds ratios) used for case-control meta-analyses. SPRE statistics can be calculated using the getspres function.

plotspres uses inverse-variance weighted fixed and random-effects meta-analysis models in the metafor R package to generate forestplots.

Value

Returns a list containing:

Methods (by class)

See Also

getspres to calculate SPRE statistics and the metafor package to explore implementations of fixed and random-effects meta-analysis models in R. To access more information and examples visit the getspres website at: https://magosil86.github.io/getspres/.

Examples

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library(getspres)


# Generate a forest plot showing SPRE statistics for variants in heartgenes214.
# heartgenes214 is a case-control GWAS meta-analysis of coronary artery disease.
# To learn more about the heartgenes214 dataset ?heartgenes214

# Calculating SPRE statistics for 3 variants in heartgenes214

heartgenes3 <- subset(heartgenes214, 
    variants %in% c("rs10139550", "rs10168194", "rs11191416")) 

getspres_results <- getspres(beta_in = heartgenes3$beta_flipped, 
                               se_in = heartgenes3$gcse, 
                      study_names_in = heartgenes3$studies, 
                    variant_names_in = heartgenes3$variants)

# Explore results generated by the getspres function
str(getspres_results)

# Retrieve number of studies and variants
getspres_results$number_variants
getspres_results$number_studies

# Retrieve SPRE dataset
df_spres <- getspres_results$spre_dataset
head(df_spres)

# Extract SPREs from SPRE dataset
head(spres <- df_spres[, "spre"])


# Generating forest plots showing SPREs for variants in heartgenes3

# Forest plot with default settings
# Tip: To store plots set save_plot = TRUE (useful when generating multiple plots)
plotspres_res <- plotspres(beta_in = df_spres$beta, 
                             se_in = df_spres$se, 
                    study_names_in = as.character(df_spres$study_names), 
                  variant_names_in = as.character(df_spres$variant_names),
                          spres_in = df_spres$spre,
                         save_plot = FALSE)

# Explore results generated by the plotspres function

# Retrieve number of studies and variants
plotspres_res$number_variants
plotspres_res$number_studies

# Retrieve fixed and random-effects meta-analysis results
fixed_effect_res <- plotspres_res$fixed_effect_results
random_effects_res <- plotspres_res$random_effects_results

# Retrieve dataset that was used to generate forest plots
df_plotspres <- plotspres_res$spre_forestplot_dataset



# Retrieve more detailed meta-analysis output
str(plotspres_res)



# Explore available options for plotspres forest plots: 
#   1. Colorize study-effect estimates according to SPRE statistic values
#   2. Label studies by study number instead of study names
#   3. Format study labels (useful when using study numbers as study labels)
#   4. Change text size
#   5. Adjust x and y axes limits
#   6. Change method used to estimate amount of heterogeneity from "DL" to "REML"
#   7. Run verbosely to show intermediate results
#   8. Adjust label (i.e. column header) positions
#   9. Save plot as a tiff file (useful when generating multiple plots)

# Colorize study-effect estimates according to SPRE statistic values

# Use a dual colour palette for observed study effects so that study effect estimates 
#   with negative SPRE statistics are coloured differently from those with positive 
#   SPRE statistics.
plotspres_res <- plotspres(beta_in = df_spres$beta, 
                             se_in = df_spres$se, 
                    study_names_in = as.character(df_spres$study_names), 
                  variant_names_in = as.character(df_spres$variant_names),
                          spres_in = df_spres$spre,
               spre_colour_palette = c("dual_colour", c("blue","black")),
                         save_plot = FALSE)


# Use a multi-colour palette for observed study effects so that study effects estimates
#   are colored in a gradient according to SPRE statistic values.
#   Available multi-colour palettes:
#
#       gr_devices_palettes: "rainbow", "cm.colors", "topo.colors", "terrain.colors" 
#                            and "heat.colors" 
#
#       colorspace_hcl_hsv_palettes: "rainbow_hcl", "diverge_hcl", "terrain_hcl", 
#                                    "sequential_hcl" and "diverge_hsl"
#
#       color_ramps_palettes: "matlab.like", "matlab.like2", "magenta2green", 
#                             "cyan2yellow", "blue2yellow", "green2red", 
#                             "blue2green" and "blue2red"

plotspres_res <- plotspres(beta_in = df_spres$beta, 
                             se_in = df_spres$se, 
                    study_names_in = as.character(df_spres$study_names), 
                  variant_names_in = as.character(df_spres$variant_names),
                          spres_in = df_spres$spre,
               spre_colour_palette = c("multi_colour", "rainbow"),
                         save_plot = FALSE)

# Exploring other options in the plotspres function.
#     Label studies by study number instead of study names (option: set_studyNOs_as_studyIDs)
#     Format study labels (option: set_study_field_width)
#     Adjust text size (option: set_cex)
#     Adjust x and y axes limits (options: set_xlim, set_ylim)
#     Change method used to estimate heterogeneity from "DL" to "REML" (option: tau2_method)
#     Adjust position of x-axis tick marks (option: set_at)
#     Run verbosely (option: verbose_output)

df_rs10139550 <- subset(df_spres, variant_names == "rs10139550")
plotspres_res <- plotspres(beta_in = df_rs10139550$beta, 
                             se_in = df_rs10139550$se, 
                    study_names_in = as.character(df_rs10139550$study_names), 
                  variant_names_in = as.character(df_rs10139550$variant_names),
                          spres_in = df_rs10139550$spre,
               spre_colour_palette = c("multi_colour", "matlab.like"),
          set_studyNOs_as_studyIDs = TRUE,
             set_study_field_width = "%03.0f",
                           set_cex = 0.75, set_xlim = c(-2,2), set_ylim = c(-1.5,51),
                            set_at = c(-0.6, -0.4, -0.2,  0.0,  0.2,  0.4,  0.6),
                       tau2_method = "REML", verbose_output = TRUE,
                         save_plot = FALSE)

# Adjust label (i.e. column header) position, also keep plot in graphics window rather
#     than save as tiff file
df_rs10139550_3studies <- subset(df_rs10139550, as.numeric(df_rs10139550$study_names) <= 3)

# Before adjusting label positions
plotspres_res <- plotspres(beta_in = df_rs10139550_3studies$beta, 
                             se_in = df_rs10139550_3studies$se, 
                    study_names_in = as.character(df_rs10139550_3studies$study_names), 
                  variant_names_in = as.character(df_rs10139550_3studies$variant_names),
                          spres_in = df_rs10139550_3studies$spre,
               spre_colour_palette = c("dual_colour", c("blue","black")),
                         save_plot = FALSE)

# After adjusting label positions
plotspres_res <- plotspres(beta_in = df_rs10139550_3studies$beta, 
                             se_in = df_rs10139550_3studies$se, 
                    study_names_in = as.character(df_rs10139550_3studies$study_names), 
                  variant_names_in = as.character(df_rs10139550_3studies$variant_names),
                          spres_in = df_rs10139550_3studies$spre,
               spre_colour_palette = c("dual_colour", c("blue","black")),
                     adjust_labels = 1.7, save_plot = FALSE)

magosil86/getspres documentation built on April 6, 2020, 9:40 a.m.