GPA Rotation for Factor Analysis


GPArotation implements Gradient Projection Algorithms and several rotation objective functions for factor analysis.


Package: GPArotation
Depends: R (>= 2.0.0)
License: GPL Version 2.
URL: or

The main optimization functions are GPForth and GPFoblq. Rotation objectives include oblimin and many others.


Coen A. Bernaards and Robert I. Jennrich with some R modifications by Paul Gilbert.

Code is modified from original source ‘’ available at


The software reference is

Bernaards, C.A. and Jennrich, R.I. (2005) Gradient Projection Algorithms and Software for Arbitrary Rotation Criteria in Factor Analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65, 676–696.

Theory of gradient projection algorithms may be found in:

Jennrich, R.I. (2001). A simple general procedure for orthogonal rotation. Psychometrika, 66, 289–306.

Jennrich, R.I. (2002). A simple general method for oblique rotation. Psychometrika, 67, 7–19.

See Also

rotations, GPForth, GPFoblq, factanal

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