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The Study of Instructional Improvement (SII; Hill, Rowan, and Ball, 2004) was carried out by researchers at the University of Michigan to study the math achievement scores of first- and third-grade students in randomly selected classrooms from a national U.S. sample of elementary schools.

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A data frame with 1190 observations on the following 12 variables.

- sex
: Indicator variable (0 = boys, 1 = girls)

- minority
: Indicator variable (0 = non-minority students, 1 = minority students)

- mathkind
: Student math score in the spring of their kindergarten year

- mathgain
: Student gain in math achievement score from the spring of kindergarten to the spring of first grade (the dependent variable)

- ses
: Student socioeconomic status

- yearstea
: First grade teacher years of teaching experience

- mathknow
: First grade teacher mathematics content knowledge: based on a scale based composed of 30 items (higher values indicate higher content knowledge)

- housepov
: Percentage of households in the neighborhood of the school below the poverty level

- mathprep
: First grade teacher mathematics preparation: number of mathematics content and methods courses

- classid
: Classroom ID number

- schoolid
: School ID number

- childid
: Student ID number

Hill, H.C., Rowan, B., and Ball, D.L. (In Press). Effect of Teacher's Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching on Student Achievement, American Educational Research Journal, Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) Project.

West, B., Welch, K. & Galecki, A, Linear Mixed Models: A Practical Guide Using Statistical Software, Chapman Hall / CRC Press, first edition, 2006.

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