This function turns an integer specifying an order of a derivative into the equivalent linear differential operator object. It is also useful for checking that an object is of the "Lfd" class.
either a nonnegative integer or a linear differential operator object.
Smoothing is achieved by penalizing the integral of the square of the
derivative of order
m = 0 penalizes the squared difference from 0 of the function
1 = penalize the square of the slope or velocity
2 = penalize the squared acceleration
3 = penalize the squared rate of change of acceleration
4 = penalize the squared curvature of acceleration?
a linear differential operator object of the "Lfd" class that is equivalent to the integer argument.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8