Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples
The pand
function calculates the percentage of all nonoverlapping
data (PAND; Parker, HaganBurke, & Vannest, 2007), an index to quantify a
level increase (or decrease) in performance after the onset of an
intervention.
1 
data 
A singlecase data frame. See 
decreasing 
If you expect data to be lower in the B phase, set

correction 
The default 
phases 
A vector of two characters or numbers indicating the two
phases that should be compared. E.g., 
The PAND indicates nonoverlap between phase A and B data (like PND
),
but uses all data and is therefore not based on one single (probably
unrepresentative) datapoint. Furthermore, PAND allows the comparison of
real and expected associations (Chisquare test) and estimation of the
effect size Phi, which equals Pearsons r for dichotomous data. Thus,
phiSquare is the amount of explained variance. The original procedure for
computing the PAND (Parker, HaganBurke, & Vannest, 2007) does not account
for ambivalent datapoints (ties). The newer NAP
overcomes this
problem and has better precisionpower (Parker, Vannest, & Davis, 2014).
PAND 
Percentage of all nonoverlapping data. 
phi 
Effect size Phi based on expected and observed values. 
POD 
Percentage of overlapping data points. 
OD 
Number of overlapping data points. 
n 
Number of data points. 
N 
Number of cases. 
nA 
Number of data points in phase A. 
nB 
Number of data points in phase B. 
pA 
Percentage of data points in phase A. 
pB 
Percentage of data points in phase B. 
matrix 
2x2 frequency matrix of phase A and B comparisons. 
matrix.counts 
2x2 counts matrix of phase A and B comparisons. 
correlation 
A list of the

correction 
Logical argument from function call (see 
Juergen Wilbert
Parker, R. I., HaganBurke, S., & Vannest, K. (2007). Percentage of All NonOverlapping Data (PAND): An Alternative to PND. The Journal of Special Education, 40, 194204.
Parker, R. I., & Vannest, K. (2009). An Improved Effect Size for SingleCase Research: Nonoverlap of All Pairs. Behavior Therapy, 40, 357367.
overlapSC
, describeSC
,
nap
, pem
, pet
, pnd
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  ## Calculate the PAND for a MMBD over three cases
gunnar < makeSCDF(c(2,3,1,5,3,4,2,6,4,7), B.start = 5)
birgit < makeSCDF(c(3,3,2,4,7,4,2,1,4,7), B.start = 4)
bodo < makeSCDF(c(2,3,4,5,3,4,7,6,8,7), B.start = 6)
mbd < list(gunnar, birgit, bodo)
pand(mbd)
pand(bodo)
## Calculate the PAND with an expected decrease of phase B scores
cubs < makeSCDF(c(20,22,24,17,21,13,10,9,20,9,18), B.start = 5)
pand(cubs, decreasing = TRUE)

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