The ChIPpeakAnno user's guide

knitr::opts_chunk$set(warning=FALSE, message=FALSE)


Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) and ChIP followed by genome tiling array analysis (ChIP-chip) have become prevalent high throughput technologies for identifying the binding sites of DNA-binding proteins genome-wise. A number of algorithms have been published to facilitate the identification of the binding sites of the DNA-binding proteins of interest. The identified binding sites as the list of peaks are usually converted to BED or bigwig files to be loaded to the UCSC genome browser as custom tracks for investigators to view the proximity to various genomic features such as genes, exons or conserved elements. However, clicking through the genome browser is a daunting task when the number of peaks gets large or the peaks spread widely across the genome.

Here we developed ChIPpeakAnno, a Bioconductor[@Gentleman2004] package, to facilitate the batch annotation of the peaks identified from ChIP-seq or ChIP-chip experiments. We implemented functionality to find the nearest gene, exon, miRNA or other custom features supplied by users such as the most conserved elements and other transcription factor binding sites leveraging GRanges. Since the genome annotation gets updated frequently, we have leveraged the biomaRt package to retrieve the annotation data on the fly. The users also have the flexibility to pass their own annotation data or annotation from GenomicFeatures as GRanges. We have also leveraged BSgenome and biomaRt to retrieve the sequences around the identified peak for peak validation or motif discovery[@Durinck2005]. To understand whether the identified peaks are enriched around genes with certain GO terms, we have implemented the Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment test in the ChIPpeakAnno package leveraging the hypergeometric test phyper in the stats package and integrated with the GO annotation from the GO.db package and multiplicity adjustment functions from the multtest package[@Benjamini1995; @benjamini2001; @johnson2005; @Holm1979; @Hochberg1988; @dudoit2003]. The pathway analysis using reactome or KEGG is also supported. Starting 3.4, we also implement the functions for permutation test to determine whether there is a significant overlap between two sets of peaks. In addition, binding patterns of multiple transcription factors (TFs) or distributions of multiple epigenetic markers around genomic features could be visualized and compared easily using a side-by-side heatmap and density plot.

Quick start

## import the MACS output
macs <- system.file("extdata", "MACS_peaks.xls", package="ChIPpeakAnno")
macsOutput <- toGRanges(macs, format="MACS")
## annotate the peaks with precompiled ensembl annotation
macs.anno <- annotatePeakInBatch(macsOutput, AnnotationData=TSS.human.GRCh38)
## add gene symbols
macs.anno <- addGeneIDs(annotatedPeak=macs.anno, 

if(interactive()){## annotate the peaks with UCSC annotation
    ucsc.hg38.knownGene <- genes(TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg38.knownGene)
    macs.anno <- annotatePeakInBatch(macsOutput, 
    macs.anno <- addGeneIDs(annotatedPeak=macs.anno, 

An example of ChIP-seq analysis workflow using ChIPpeakAnno

We illustrate here a common downstream analysis workflow for ChIP-seq experiments. The input of ChIPpeakAnno is a list of called peaks identified from ChIP-seq experiments. The peaks are represented by GRanges in ChIPpeakAnno. We implemented a conversion functions toGRanges to convert commonly used peak file formats, such as BED, GFF, or other user defined formats such as MACS (a popular peak calling program) output file to GRanges. Please type ?toGRanges for more information.

The workflow here exemplifies converting the BED and GFF files to GRanges, finding the overlapping peaks between the two peak sets, and visualizing the number of common and specific peaks with Venn diagram.

bed <- system.file("extdata", "MACS_output.bed", package="ChIPpeakAnno")
gr1 <- toGRanges(bed, format="BED", header=FALSE) 
## one can also try import from rtracklayer
gr1.import <- import(bed, format="BED")
identical(start(gr1), start(gr1.import))
gr1.import[1:2] #note the name slot is different from gr1
gff <- system.file("extdata", "GFF_peaks.gff", package="ChIPpeakAnno")
gr2 <- toGRanges(gff, format="GFF", header=FALSE, skip=3)
ol <- findOverlapsOfPeaks(gr1, gr2)
                fill=c("#009E73", "#F0E442"), # circle fill color
                col=c("#D55E00", "#0072B2"), #circle border color
                cat.col=c("#D55E00", "#0072B2"))

A pie chart is used to demonstrate the overlap features of the common peaks.


After finding the overlapping peaks, you can use annotatePeakInBatch to annotate the overlapping peaks with the genomic features in the AnnotationData within certain distance away specified by maxgap, which is 5kb in the following example.

overlaps <- ol$peaklist[["gr1///gr2"]]
## ============== old style ===========
## data(TSS.human.GRCh37) 
## overlaps.anno <- annotatePeakInBatch(overlaps, AnnotationData=annoData, 
##                                      output="overlapping", maxgap=5000L)
## overlaps.anno <- addGeneIDs(overlaps.anno, "", "symbol")
## ============== new style ===========
library(EnsDb.Hsapiens.v75) ##(hg19)
## create annotation file from EnsDb or TxDb
annoData <- toGRanges(EnsDb.Hsapiens.v75, feature="gene")
overlaps.anno <- annotatePeakInBatch(overlaps, AnnotationData=annoData, 
                                    output="overlapping", maxgap=5000L)
overlaps.anno$gene_name <- 

Once the peaks are annotated, the distribution of the distance to the nearest feature such as the transcription start sites (TSS) can be plotted. The sample code here plots the distribution of the aggregated peak scores and the number of peaks around the TSS.

gr1.copy <- gr1
gr1.copy$score <- 1
binOverFeature(gr1, gr1.copy, annotationData=annoData,
               radius=5000, nbins=10, FUN=c(sum, length),
               ylab=c("score", "count"), 
               main=c("Distribution of aggregated peak scores around TSS", 
                      "Distribution of aggregated peak numbers around TSS"))

The distribution of the peaks over exon, intron, enhancer, proximal promoter, 5' UTR and 3' UTR can be summarized in peak centric or nucleotide centric view using the function assignChromosomeRegion. Please note that setting nucleotideLevel = TRUE will give a nucleotide level distribution over different features.

    aCR<-assignChromosomeRegion(gr1, nucleotideLevel=FALSE, 
                           precedence=c("Promoters", "immediateDownstream", 
                                         "fiveUTRs", "threeUTRs", 
                                         "Exons", "Introns"), 

Detailed Use Cases and Scenarios

Here we describe some details in using different functions in ChIPpeakAnno for different tasks. As shown in the last section, the common workflow includes: loading called peaks from BED, GFF, or other formats; evaluating and visualizing the concordance among the biological replicates; combining peaks from replicates; preparing genomic annotation(s) as GRanges; associating/annotating peaks with the annotation(s); summarizing peak distributions over exon, intron, enhancer, proximal promoter, 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions; retrieving the sequences around the peaks; and enrichment analysis of GO and biological pathway. We also implemented the functions to plot the heatmap of given peak ranges, and perform permutation test to determine if there is a significant overlap between two sets of peaks.

Determine the overlapping peaks and visualize the overlaps with Venn diagram

Prior to associating features of interest with the peaks, it is a common practice to evaluate the concordance among the peaks from biological replicates and combine the peaks from biological replicates. Also, it is biologically interesting to obtain overlapping peaks from different ChIP-seq experiments to imply the potential formation of transcription factor complexes. ChIPpeakAnno implemented functions to achieve those goals and quantitatively determine the significance of peak overlaps and generate a Venn diagram for visualization.

Here is the sample code to obtain the overlapping peaks with maximum gap of 1kb for two peak ranges.

peaks1 <- GRanges(seqnames=c("1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", 
                              "2", "6", "6", "6", "6", "5"),
                   ranges=IRanges(start=c(967654, 2010897, 2496704, 3075869, 
                                          3123260, 3857501, 201089, 1543200, 
                                          1557200, 1563000, 1569800, 167889600),
                                  end= c(967754, 2010997, 2496804, 3075969, 
                                         3123360, 3857601, 201089, 1555199,
                                         1560599, 1565199, 1573799, 167893599),
                                  names=paste("Site", 1:12, sep="")),

peaks2 <- GRanges(seqnames=c("1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "1", "2", "3", 
                                     "4", "5", "6", "6", "6", "6", "6", "5"),
                          ranges=IRanges(start=c(967659, 2010898, 2496700, 
                                                 3075866, 3123260, 3857500, 
                                                 96765, 201089, 249670, 307586, 
                                                 312326, 385750, 1549800, 
                                                 1554400, 1565000, 1569400,
                                         end=c(967869, 2011108, 2496920, 
                                               3076166,3123470, 3857780, 
                                               96985, 201299, 249890, 307796, 
                                               312586, 385960, 1550599, 1560799,
                                               1565399, 1571199, 167888999), 
                                         names=paste("t", 1:17, sep="")),
                          strand=c("+", "+", "+", "+", "+", "+", "-", "-", "-", 
                                   "-", "-", "-", "+", "+", "+", "+", "+"))

ol <- findOverlapsOfPeaks(peaks1, peaks2, maxgap=1000)
peaklist <- ol$peaklist

The function findOverlapsOfPeaks returns an object of overlappingPeaks, which contains there elements: venn_cnt, peaklist (a list of
overlapping peaks or unique peaks), and overlappingPeaks (a list of data frame consists of the annotation of all the overlapping peaks).

Within the overlappingPeaks element of the overlappingPeaks object ol (which is also a list), the element "peaks1///peaks2" is a data frame representing the overlapping peaks with maximum gap of 1kb between the two peak lists. Using the overlapFeature column in this data frame, a pie graph can be generated to describe the distribution of the features of the relative positions of peaks1 to peaks2 for the overlapping peaks.

overlappingPeaks <- ol$overlappingPeaks
overlappingPeaks[["peaks1///peaks2"]][1:2, ]

The following code returns the merged overlapping peaks from the peaklist object.


The peaks in peaks1 but not overlap with the peaks in peaks2 can be obtained with:


The peaks in peaks2 but not overlap with the peaks in peaks1 can be obtained with:


Venn diagram can be generated by the function makeVennDiagram using the output of findOverlapsOfPeaks as an input.

The makeVennDiagram also outputs p-values indicating whether the overlapping is significant.

makeVennDiagram(ol, totalTest=1e+2,
                fill=c("#009E73", "#F0E442"), # circle fill color
                col=c("#D55E00", "#0072B2"), #circle border color
                cat.col=c("#D55E00", "#0072B2"))

Alternatively, users have the option to use other tools to plot Venn diagram. The following code demonstrates how to use a third party R package Vernerable with the output from the function findOverlapsOfPeaks.

#     install.packages("Vennerable", repos="", 
#                     type="source")
#     library(Vennerable)
#     venn_cnt2venn <- function(venn_cnt){
#         n <- which(colnames(venn_cnt)=="Counts") - 1
#         SetNames=colnames(venn_cnt)[1:n]
#         Weight=venn_cnt[,"Counts"]
#         names(Weight) <- apply(venn_cnt[,1:n], 1, base::paste, collapse="")
#         Venn(SetNames=SetNames, Weight=Weight)
#     }
#     v <- venn_cnt2venn(ol$venn_cnt)
#     plot(v)

The findOverlapsOfPeaks function accepts up to 5 peak lists for overlapping peaks. The following code is an example for 3 peak lists.

peaks3 <- GRanges(seqnames=c("1", "2", "3", "4", "5", 
                             "6", "1", "2", "3", "4"),
                   ranges=IRanges(start=c(967859, 2010868, 2496500, 3075966,
                                          3123460, 3851500, 96865, 201189, 
                                          249600, 307386),
                                  end= c(967969, 2011908, 2496720, 3076166,
                                         3123470, 3857680, 96985, 201299, 
                                         249890, 307796),
                                  names=paste("p", 1:10, sep="")),
                  strand=c("+", "+", "+", "+", "+", 
                           "+", "-", "-", "-", "-"))

ol <- findOverlapsOfPeaks(peaks1, peaks2, peaks3, maxgap=1000, 
makeVennDiagram(ol, totalTest=1e+2,
                fill=c("#CC79A7", "#56B4E9", "#F0E442"), # circle fill color
                col=c("#D55E00", "#0072B2", "#E69F00"), #circle border color
                cat.col=c("#D55E00", "#0072B2", "#E69F00"))

The parameter totalTest in the function makeVennDiagram indicates the total number of potential peaks used in the hypergeometric test. It should be larger than the largest number of peaks in the replicates. The smaller it is set, the more stringent the test is. The time used to calculate p-value does not depend on the value of the totalTest. For practical guidance on how to choose totalTest, please refer to the post. Hypergeometric test requires users to input an estimate of the total potential binding sites (peaks) for a given TF. To circumvent this requirement, we implemented a permutation test called permTest. For more details about the permTest, go to section 4.11.

Generate annotation data

One main function of the ChIPpeakAnno package is to annotate peaks to known genomic features, such as TSS, 5'UTR, 3'UTR etc. Constructing and choosing the appropriate annotation data is crucial for this process.

To simplify this process, we precompiled a list of annotation data for the transcriptional starting sites (TSS) of various species (with different genome assembly versions), such as TSS.human.NCBI36, TSS.human.GRCh37, TSS.human.GRCh38, TSS.mouse.NCBIM37, TSS.mouse.GRCm38, TSS.rat.RGSC3.4, TSS.rat.Rnor_5.0, TSS.zebrafish.Zv8, and TSS.zebrafish.Zv9. The precompiled annotations can be loaded by R data() function, e.g., data(TSS.human.GRCh38).

To annotate the peaks with other genomic features, please use function getAnnotation with the argument featureType, e.g., "Exon" to obtain the nearest exon, "miRNA" to find the nearest miRNA, and "5utr" or "3utr" to locate the overlapping "5'UTR" or "3'UTR". Another parameter for getAnnotation is the name of the appropriate biomaRt dataset, for example, drerio_gene_ensembl for zebrafish genome, mmusculus_gene_ensembl for mouse genome and rnorvegicus_gene_ensembl for rat genome. For a list of available biomaRt and dataset, please refer to the biomaRt package documentation[@Durinck2005]. For the detailed usage of getAnnotation, please type ?getAnnotation in R.

In addition, a custom annotation dataset as GRanges, can be used in annotatePeakInBatch. We implemented toGRanges function for converting custom annotation dataset in other formats, such as UCSC BED/GFF format, or any user defined dataset such as RangedDate, to GRanges. For example, if you have a list of transcription factor binding sites from literatures and are interested in locating the nearest TSS and the distance to it for the peak lists.

An GRanges object can be also constructed from EnsDb or TxDb object by calling the toGRanges method. Use ?toGRanges for more information.

Here is the code snippet to build annotation data containing only the known genes, i.e., excluding other transcript products such as pseudo genes using TranscriptDb TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene with toGRanges is:

annoData <- toGRanges(TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene, feature="gene")

Find the nearest feature and the distance to the feature for the peaklists

With the annotation data, you can annotate the peaks identified from ChIP-seq or ChIP-chip experiments to retrieve the nearest gene and distance to the corresponding TSS of the gene.

For example, using the GRanges object generated in the previous section as AnnotationData, the first 6 peaks in the myPeakList are annotated with the following code:

annotatedPeak <- annotatePeakInBatch(myPeakList[1:6],
                                     AnnotationData = annoData)

As discussed in the previous section, all the genomic locations of the human genes have been precompiled, such as TSS.human.NCBI36 dataset, using function getAnnotation. You can pass it to the argument annotaionData of the annotatePeakInBatch function.

annotatedPeak <- annotatePeakInBatch(myPeakList[1:6], 

You can also pass the user defined features as annotationData. A pie chart can be plotted to show the peak distribution among the features after annotation.

myPeak1 <- GRanges(seqnames=c("1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", 
                              "2", "6", "6", "6", "6", "5"),
                   ranges=IRanges(start=c(967654, 2010897, 2496704, 3075869, 
                                          3123260, 3857501, 201089, 1543200, 
                                          1557200, 1563000, 1569800, 167889600),
                                  end= c(967754, 2010997, 2496804, 3075969, 
                                         3123360, 3857601, 201089, 1555199,
                                         1560599, 1565199, 1573799, 167893599),
                                  names=paste("Site", 1:12, sep="")))

TFbindingSites <- GRanges(seqnames=c("1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "1", "2", 
                                     "3", "4", "5", "6", "6", "6", "6", "6",
                          ranges=IRanges(start=c(967659, 2010898, 2496700, 
                                                 3075866, 3123260, 3857500, 
                                                 96765, 201089, 249670, 307586, 
                                                 312326, 385750, 1549800, 
                                                 1554400, 1565000, 1569400,
                                         end=c(967869, 2011108, 2496920, 
                                               3076166,3123470, 3857780, 
                                               96985, 201299, 249890, 307796, 
                                               312586, 385960, 1550599, 1560799,
                                               1565399, 1571199, 167888999), 
                                         names=paste("t", 1:17, sep="")),
                          strand=c("+", "+", "+", "+", "+", "+", "-", "-", "-", 
                                   "-", "-", "-", "+", "+", "+", "+", "+"))

annotatedPeak2 <- annotatePeakInBatch(myPeak1, AnnotationData=TFbindingSites)

Another example of using user defined AnnotationData is to annotate peaks by promoters, defined as upstream 5K to downstream 500bp from TSS. The sample code here demonstrates using the GenomicFeatures::promoters function to build a custom annotation dataset and annotate the peaks with this user defined promoter annotations.

annotationData <- promoters(TSS.human.NCBI36, upstream=5000, downstream=500)
annotatedPeak <- annotatePeakInBatch(myPeakList[1:6,], 

In the function annotatyePeakInBatch, various parameters can be adjusted to specify the way to calculate the distance and how the features are selected. For example, PeakLocForDistance is to specify the location of the peak for distance calculation: "middle" (recommended) means using the middle of the peak, and "start" (default, for backward compatibility) means using the start of the peak to calculate the distance to the features. Similarly, FeatureLocForDistance is to specify the location of the feature for distance calculation: "middle" means using the middle of the feature, "start" means using the start of the feature to calculate the distance from the peak to the feature; "TSS" (default) means using the start of the feature when the feature is on plus strand and using the end of feature when the feature is on minus strand; "geneEnd" means using end of the feature when feature is on plus strand and using start of feature when feature is on minus strand.

The argument "output" specifies the characteristics of the output of the annotated features. The default is "nearestLocation", which means to output the nearest features calculated as PeakLocForDistance-FeatureLocForDistance; "overlapping" will output the overlapping features within the maximum gap specified as maxgap between the peak range and feature range; "shortestDistance" will output the nearest features; "both" will output all the nearest features, in addition, will output any features that overlap the peak that are not the nearest features. other options see ?annotatePeakInBatch.

Find the overlapping and flanking features

In addition to annotating peaks to nearest genes, ChIPpeakAnno can also reports all overlapping and flanking genes by setting output="both" and maxgap in annotatePeakInBatch. For example, it outputs all overlapping and flanking genes within 5kb plus nearest genes if set maxgap = 5000 and output ="both".

annotatedPeak <- annotatePeakInBatch(myPeakList[1:6],
                                     AnnotationData = annoData,
                                     output="both", maxgap=5000)

Add other feature IDs to the annotated peaks

Additional annotations features such as entrez ID, gene symbol and gene name can be added with the function addGeneIDs. The annotated peaks can be saved as an Excel file or plotted for visualizing the peak distribution relative to the genomic features of interest. Here is an example to add gene symbol to the annotated peaks. Please type ?addGeneIDs in a R session for more information.

addGeneIDs(annotatedPeak[1:6], orgAnn="", IDs2Add=c("symbol"))
addGeneIDs(annotatedPeak$feature[1:6], orgAnn="", 

Obtain the sequences surrounding the peaks

Here is an example to get the sequences of the peaks plus 20 bp upstream and downstream for PCR validation or motif discovery.

peaks <- GRanges(seqnames=c("NC_008253", "NC_010468"),
                 ranges=IRanges(start=c(100, 500), 
                                end=c(300, 600), 
                                names=c("peak1", "peak2")))
peaksWithSequences <- getAllPeakSequence(peaks, upstream=20, 
                                         downstream=20, genome=Ecoli)

The obtained sequences can be converted to fasta format for motif discovery by calling the function write2FASTA.


Create heatmap for given feature/peak ranges

You can easily visualize and compare the binding patterns of raw signals of multiple ChIP-Seq experiments using function featureAlignedHeatmap and featureAlignedDistribution.

path <- system.file("extdata", package="ChIPpeakAnno")
files <- dir(path, "broadPeak")
data <- sapply(file.path(path, files), toGRanges, format="broadPeak")
names(data) <- gsub(".broadPeak", "", files)
ol <- findOverlapsOfPeaks(data)
features <- ol$peaklist[[length(ol$peaklist)]]
wid <- width(features)
feature.recentered <- <- features
start( <- start(features) + floor(wid/2)
width( <- 1
start(feature.recentered) <- start( - 2000
end(feature.recentered) <- end( + 2000
## here we also suggest importData function in bioconductor trackViewer package 
## to import the coverage.
## compare rtracklayer, it will save you time when handle huge dataset.
files <- dir(path, "bigWig")
if(.Platform$OS.type != "windows"){
    cvglists <- sapply(file.path(path, files), import, 
}else{## rtracklayer can not import bigWig files on Windows
    load(file.path(path, "cvglist.rds"))
names(cvglists) <- gsub(".bigWig", "", files)
sig <- featureAlignedSignal(cvglists,, 
                            upstream=2000, downstream=2000) 
heatmap <- featureAlignedHeatmap(sig,, 
                                 upstream=2000, downstream=2000,
                           upstream=2000, downstream=2000,

Output a summary of motif occurrences in the peaks.

Here is an example to search the motifs in the binding peaks. The motif patterns to be searched are saved in the file examplepattern.fa.

peaks <- GRanges(seqnames=c("NC_008253", "NC_010468"),
                 ranges=IRanges(start=c(100, 500), 
                                end=c(300, 600), 
                                names=c("peak1", "peak2")))
filepath <- system.file("extdata", "examplePattern.fa", package="ChIPpeakAnno")
summarizePatternInPeaks(patternFilePath=filepath, format="fasta", skip=0L, 
                        BSgenomeName=Ecoli, peaks=peaks)

Obtain the enriched Gene Ontology (GO) terms or reactome/KEGG terms for the genes near the peaks

With the annotated peak data, you can call the function getEnrichedGO to obtain a list of enriched GO terms. For pathway analysis, you can call function getEnrichedPATH using reactome or KEGG database.

In the following sample code, we used a subset of the annotatedPeak (the first 500 peaks) for demonstration. All annotated peaks should be used in the real situation.

over <- getEnrichedGO(annotatedPeak[1:500], orgAnn="", 
                    maxP=0.01, minGOterm=10, 
head(over[["bp"]][, -3])
head(over[["cc"]][, -3])
head(over[["mf"]][, -3])

Please note that the default setting of feature_id_type is "ensembl_gene_id". If you are using TxDb as annotation data, please set feature id type to "entrez_id".

Please also note that is the GO gene mapping for Human, for other organisms, please refer to released organism annotations, or call function egOrgMap to get the name of annotation database. For example, here is how to obtain the GO gene mapping for mouse and human.

egOrgMap("Mus musculus")
egOrgMap("Homo sapiens")

Find peaks with bi-directional promoters

Bidirectional promoters are the DNA regions located between the transcription start sites (TSS) of two adjacent genes that are transcribed on the opposite directions and often co-regulated by this shared promoter region[@robertson2007]. Here is an example to find peaks near bi-directional promoters and output the percentage of the peaks near bi-directional promoters.

seqlevelsStyle(TSS.human.NCBI36) <- seqlevelsStyle(myPeakList)
annotatedBDP <- peaksNearBDP(myPeakList[1:10,], 

Perform permutation test to determine if there is a significant overlap between two sets of peaks

Given two peak lists from two transcript factors (TFs), one common question is whether there is a significant overlap between DNA binding sites of the two TFs, which can be determined using hypergeometric test. As we have discussed in section 4.1, the hypergeometric test requires users to input an estimate of the total potential binding sites for a given TF. To circumvent this requirement, we implemented a permutation test called peakPermTest. Before performing a permutation test, users need to generate a random peak list using the distribution discovered from the input peaks for a given feature type (transcripts or exons), to make sure the binding positions relative to features, such as TSS and geneEnd, and the width of the random peaks follow the distribution of that of the input peaks.

Following are the sample codes to do the peakPermTest:

txdb <- TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene
cds <- unique(unlist(cdsBy(txdb)))
utr5 <- unique(unlist(fiveUTRsByTranscript(txdb)))
utr3 <- unique(unlist(threeUTRsByTranscript(txdb)))
utr3 <- utr3[, 1000)]
pt <- peakPermTest(utr3, 
             utr5[, 1000)], 
             TxDb=txdb, seed=1,
## highly relevant peaks
ol <- findOverlaps(cds, utr3, maxgap=1)
pt1 <- peakPermTest(utr3,
             c(cds[, 500)], 
                cds[queryHits(ol)][, 500)]), 
             TxDb=txdb, seed=1,

Alternatively, a peak pool representing all potential binding sites can be created with associated binding probabilities using random peak sampling using preparePool. Here is an example to build a peak pool for human genome using the transcription factor binding site clusters (V3) (see ?wgEncodeTfbsV3) downloaded from ENCODE with the HOT spots (?HOT.spots) removed. HOT spots are the genomic regions with high probability of being bound by many TFs in ChIP-seq experiments[@yip2012]. We suggest remove those HOT spots from the peak lists before performing permutation test to avoid the overestimation of the association between two input peak lists. Users can also choose to remove ENCODE blacklist for a given species. The blacklists were constructed by identifying consistently problematic regions over independent cell lines and types of experiments for each species in the ENCODE and modENCODE datasets[@encode2012integrated]. Please note that some of the blacklists may need to be converted to the correct genome assembly using liftover utility. Following are the sample codes to do the permutation test using peakPermTest:

    hotGR <- reduce(unlist(HOT.spots))
    removeOl <- function(.ele){
        ol <- findOverlaps(.ele, hotGR)
        if(length(ol)>0) .ele <- .ele[-unique(queryHits(ol))]
    temp <- tempfile()
                            "goldenPath", "hg19", "encodeDCC", 
                            "wgEncodeRegTfbsClusteredV3.bed.gz"), temp)
    data <- toGRanges(gzfile(temp, "r"), header=FALSE, format="others", 
                      colNames = c("seqnames", "start", "end", "TF"))
    data <- split(data, data$TF)
    TAF1 <- removeOl(data[["TAF1"]])
    TEAD4 <- removeOl(data[["TEAD4"]])
    pool <- new("permPool", grs=GRangesList(wgEncodeTfbsV3), N=length(TAF1))
    pt <- peakPermTest(TAF1, TEAD4, pool=pool, ntimes=1000)

Citing ChIPpeakAnno

Please cite ChIPpeakAnno in your publication as follows:


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ChIPpeakAnno documentation built on April 1, 2021, 6:01 p.m.