Using a normalization based upon quantiles, this function normalizes a matrix of probe level intensities.

1 |

`x` |
A matrix of intensities where each column corresponds to a chip and each row is a probe. |

`copy` |
Make a copy of matrix before normalizing. Usually safer to work with a copy, but in certain situations not making a copy of the matrix, but instead normalizing it in place will be more memory friendly. |

This method is based upon the concept of a quantile-quantile plot extended to n dimensions. No special allowances are made for outliers. If you make use of quantile normalization please cite Bolstad et al, Bioinformatics (2003).

This functions will handle missing data (ie NA values), based on the assumption that the data is missing at random.

Note that the current implementation optimizes for better memory usage at the cost of some additional run-time.

A normalized `matrix`

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Ben Bolstad, bmbolstad.com

Bolstad, B (2001) *Probe Level Quantile Normalization of High Density
Oligonucleotide Array Data*. Unpublished manuscript
http://bmbolstad.com/stuff/qnorm.pdf

Bolstad, B. M., Irizarry R. A., Astrand, M, and Speed, T. P. (2003)
*A Comparison of Normalization Methods for High Density
Oligonucleotide Array Data Based on Bias and Variance.*
Bioinformatics 19(2) ,pp 185-193. http://bmbolstad.com/misc/normalize/normalize.html

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