Description Usage Arguments Value Examples
Calculate an Evalue for a specified set of biases.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  multi_evalue(biases, est, ...)
multi_evalues.HR(
biases,
est,
lo = NA,
hi = NA,
rare = NULL,
true = 1,
verbose = TRUE,
...
)
multi_evalues.OR(
biases,
est,
lo = NA,
hi = NA,
rare = NULL,
true = 1,
verbose = TRUE,
...
)
multi_evalues.RR(biases, est, lo = NA, hi = NA, true = 1, verbose = TRUE, ...)

biases 
An object created by 
est 
The effect estimate that was observed but which is suspected to be
biased. This may be of class "estimate" (constructed with 
... 
Arguments passed to other methods. 
lo 
Optional. Lower bound of the confidence interval. If not an object
of class "estimate", assumed to be on the same scale as 
hi 
Optional. Upper bound of the confidence interval. If not an object
of class "estimate", assumed to be on the same scale as 
rare 
Logical indicating whether outcome is sufficiently rare for risk ratio approximation to hold. 
true 
A number to which to shift the observed estimate to. Defaults to

verbose 
Logical indicating whether or not to print information about which parameters the multibias Evalue refers to. Defaults to TRUE. 
Returns a multiple bias Evalue, of class "multi_evalue", describing the value that each of a number of parameters would have to have for the observed effect measure to be completely explained by bias.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  # Calculate an Evalue for unmeasured confounding
multi_evalue(est = RR(4), biases = confounding())
# Equivalent to
evalues.RR(4)
# Calculate a multibias Evalue for selection bias
# and misclassification
multi_evalue(est = RR(2.5),
biases = multi_bias(selection("selected"),
misclassification("outcome")))
# Calculate a multibias Evalue for all three
# available types of bias
biases < multi_bias(confounding(),
selection("general", "S = U"),
misclassification("exposure",
rare_outcome = TRUE))
multi_evalue(est = RR(2.5), biases = biases)
# Calculate a multibias Evalue for a nonrare OR
# using the square root approximation
multi_evalue(est = OR(2.5, rare = FALSE), biases = biases)
# Calculate a nonnull multibias Evalue
multi_evalue(est = RR(2.5), biases = biases, true = 2)

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