# Body Mass Estimates Using QE, MR, AHR1985, and MCF2004

### Description

This function returns body mass estimates for quadrupeds using humeral and/or femoral circumferences (intended for non-avian dinosaurs)

### Usage

1 | ```
quadrupeds(HC, FC, QE_MR.eq = "raw", data = NULL)
``` |

### Arguments

`HC` |
a value or vector representing humeral circumference (in mm) |

`FC` |
a value or vector representing femoral circumference (in mm) |

`QE_MR.eq` |
desired estimation equations to used by QE and MR. Two possible choices. |

`data` |
an optional object of |

### Details

This function returns estimates from five equations intented for terrestrial quadrupeds (in particular non-avian dinosaurs): two from Campione and Evans (2012) based on bivariate and multiple regression approaches; a quadratic view of the bivariate regression (Campione in review); Anderson et al. (1985); Mazzetta et al. (2004). For more details please see the specific functions.

If a data object is specified, the mass estiamtes and additional results will be added as columns to the data.frame or matrix within that object.

### Value

11 numeric values or columns are returned (all masses are in grams):

`QE` |
A numeric value or vector of mass estimates using QE (bivariate regression) |

`upper.QE` |
A numeric value or vector representing the upper prediction error of the QE based on that derived for the specific equation by Campione and Evans (2012) |

`lower.QE` |
A numeric value or vector representing the lower prediction error of the QE |

`qQE` |
A numeric value or vector of mass estimates using qQE (quadratic equation) |

`upper.qQE` |
A numeric value or vector representing the upper prediction error of qQE derived for the specific equation in Campione (in review) |

`lower.qQE` |
A numeric value or vector representing the lower prediction error of qQE |

`MR` |
A numeric value or vector of mass estimates using MR (multiple regression) |

`upper.MR` |
A numeric value or vector representing the upper prediction error of the MR based on that derived for the specific equation by Campione and Evans (2012) |

`lower.MR` |
A numeric value or vector representing the lower prediction error of the MR |

`AHR1985` |
A numeric value or vector of mass estimates using Anderson et al. (1985) |

`MCF2004` |
A numeric value or vector of mass estimates using Mazzetta et al. (2004) |

### Author(s)

Nicolas E. Campione

### References

Anderson, J. F., Hall-Martin, A. and Russell, D.A. (1985) Long-bone circumference and weight in mammals, birds and dinosaurs. Journal of the Zoological Society of London A, 207, 53-61.

Campione, N. E. and Evans, D. C. (2012) A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods. BMC Biology, 10, 60.

Campione, N. E. (in review) Extrapolation of a universal scaling relationship for estimating body masses in extinct terrestrial vertebrates.

Mazzetta, G. V., Christiansen, P. and Farina, R. A. (2004) Giants and bizzares: body size of some southern South American Cretaceous dinosaurs. Historical Biology, 16, 71-83.

### See Also

`QE`

`MR`

`AHR1985`

`MCF2004`