# asymPermute: Assess differences in amount and direction of asymmetric... In Morpho: Calculations and Visualisations Related to Geometric Morphometrics

 asymPermute R Documentation

## Assess differences in amount and direction of asymmetric variation (only object symmetry)

### Description

Assess differences in amount and direction of asymmetric variation (only object symmetry)

### Usage

``````asymPermute(x, groups, rounds = 1000, which = NULL)
``````

### Arguments

 `x` object of class symproc result from calling `procSym` with `pairedLM` specified `groups` factors determining grouping. `rounds` number of permutations `which` select which factorlevels to use, if NULL, all pairwise differences will be assessed after shuffling pooled data.

### Value

 `dist` difference between vector lengths of group means `angle` angle (in radians) between vectors of group specific asymmetric deviation `means` actual group averages `p.dist` p-value obtained by comparing the actual distance to randomly acquired distances `p.angle` p-value obtained by comparing the actual angle to randomly acquired angles `permudist` vector containing differences between random group means' vector lenghts `permuangle` vector containing angles between random group means' vectors `groupmeans` array with asymmetric displacement per group `levels` character vector containing the factors used

### Note

This test is only sensible if between-group differences concerning directional asymmetry have been established (e.g. by applying a MANOVA on the "asymmetric" PCscores (see also `procSym`) and one wants to test whether these can be attributed to differences in amount and/or direction of asymmetric displacement. Careful interpretation for very small amounts of directional asymmetry is advised. The Null-Hypothesis is that we have the same directional asymmetry in both groups. If you want to test whether the angle between groups is similar, please use `angleTest`.

`procSym`