Description Usage Arguments Value Author(s) References Examples

Perform cross-validation for the function that implements the "sparse Poisson linear discriminant analysis classifier", which is similar to linear discriminant analysis but assumes a Poisson model rather than a Gaussian model for the data. The classifier soft-thresholds the estimated effect of each feature in order to achieve sparsity. This cross-validation function selects the proper value of the tuning parameter that controls the level of soft-thresholding.

1 2 |

`x` |
A n-by-p training data matrix; n observations and p features. |

`y` |
A numeric vector of class labels of length n: 1, 2, ...., K if there are K classes. Each element of y corresponds to a row of x; i.e. these are the class labels for the observations in x. |

`rhos` |
A vector of tuning parameters to try out in cross-validation. Rho controls the level of shrinkage performed, i.e. the number of features that are not involved in the classifier. When rho=0 then all features are involved in the classifier, and when rho is very large no features are involved. If rhos=NULL then a vector of rho values will be chosen automatically. |

`beta` |
A smoothing term. A Gamma(beta,beta) prior is used to fit the Poisson model. Recommendation is to leave it at 1, the default value. |

`nfolds` |
The number of folds in the cross-validation; default is 5-fold cross-validation. |

`type` |
How should the observations be normalized within the Poisson model, i.e. how should the size factors be estimated? Options are "quantile" or "deseq" (more robust) or "mle" (less robust). In greater detail: "quantile" is quantile normalization approach of Bullard et al 2010 BMC Bioinformatics, "deseq" is median of the ratio of an observation to a pseudoreference obtained by taking the geometric mean, described in Anders and Huber 2010 Genome Biology and implemented in Bioconductor package "DESeq", and "mle" is the sum of counts for each sample; this is the maximum likelihood estimate under a simple Poisson model. |

`prior` |
Vector of length equal to the number of classes, representing prior probabilities for each class. If NULL then uniform priors are used (i.e. each class is equally likely). |

`transform` |
Should data matrices x and xte first be power transformed so that it more closely fits the Poisson model? TRUE or FALSE. Power transformation is especially useful if the data are overdispersed relative to the Poisson model. |

`alpha` |
If transform=TRUE, this determines the power to which the data matrices x and xte are transformed. If alpha=NULL then the transformation that makes the Poisson model best fit the data matrix x is computed. (Note that alpha is computed based on x, not based on xte). Or a value of alpha, 0<alpha<=1, can be entered by the user. |

`folds` |
Instead of specifying the number of folds in cross-validation, one can explicitly specify the folds. To do this, input a list of length r (to perform r-fold cross-validation). The rth element of the list should be a vector containing the indices of the test observations in the rth fold. |

`errs` |
A matrix of dimension (number of folds)-by-(length of rhos). The (i,j) element is the number of errors occurring in the ith cross-validation fold for the jth value of the tuning parameter, i.e. rhos[j]. |

`bestrho` |
The tuning parameter value resulting in the lowest overall cross-validation error rate. |

`rhos` |
The vector of rho values used in cross-validation. |

`nnonzero` |
A matrix of dimension (number of folds)-by-(length of rhos). The (i,j) element is the number of features included in the classifier occurring in the ith cross-validation fold for the jth value of the tuning paramer. |

`folds` |
Cross-validation folds used. |

`alpha` |
Power transformation used (if transform=TRUE). |

Daniela Witten

D Witten (2011) Classification and clustering of sequencing data using a Poisson model. To appear in Annals of Applied Statistics.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | ```
set.seed(1)
dat <- CountDataSet(n=40,p=500,sdsignal=.1,K=3,param=10)
cv.out <- Classify.cv(dat$x,dat$y)
print(cv.out)
out <- Classify(dat$x,dat$y,dat$xte,rho=cv.out$bestrho)
print(out)
cat("Confusion matrix comparing predicted class labels to true class
labels for training observations:", fill=TRUE)
print(table(out$ytehat,dat$yte))
``` |

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