Oracle Data Mining (ODM) is an option of Oracle's Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) Enterprise Edition (EE). It contains several data mining and data analysis algorithms for classification, prediction, regression, clustering, associations, feature selection, anomaly detection, feature extraction, and specialized analytics. It provides means for the creation, management and operational deployment of data mining models inside the database environment.
RODM is an interface that provides a powerful environment for prototyping data analysis and data mining methodologies. It facilitates the prototyping of vertical applications and makes ODM and the RDBMS environment easily accessible to statisticians and data analysts familiar with R but not experts in SQL. In this way it provides an ideal environment for demos and proof of concept studies. It also facilitates the benchmarking and testing of functionality including statistics and graphics of performance metrics and enables the scripting and control of production data mining methodologies from a high-level environment.
RODM is a package that provides access to Oracle's in-database data mining functionality.
RODM requires the use of an Oracle release 11g database. If you don't have an installed Oracle database in place and need to install one from scratch we stronly recommend you follow the guidelines in the Oracle Data Mining Administrator's Guide. RODM requires R release > 2.10.1.
Connecting to an Oracle database:
The above routines are used to establish a connection to an Oracle 11g database using ODBC. RODM uses the RODBC package as a means to manage the database connection. A data source name must be provided, as well as a username and password. The user that is connecting needs sufficient privileges for performing mining operations in the database. We have tested RODM using the Oracle ODBC driver that comes with the Oracle RDBMS. We recommend the use of this ODBC driver instead of others.
Pushing data to the database:
Once a valid database connection has been established, in-database mining can begin. If the data to be mined exists within R (e.g., in a data frame), it first needs to be pushed to the database and placed in a table. The above routines leverage the RODBC package to push data to a database table, which can then be accessed for mining by ODM.
Auxilliary functions (for internal use):
The above routines are used under-the-covers when building ODM models. They do not need to be invoked directly. They are present merely to improve maintainability and modularity.
Building ODM models:
The above nine routines are used to build ODM models in the database. They share many of the same arguments. All of these routines require a database connection (as retrieved via RODM_open_dbms_connection) and a table/view in the database (either pre-existing or created via RODM_create_dbms_table) which will provide the training data. All routines accept a case identifier column name. This is the name of a column which can be used to uniquely identify a training record. Most routines do not need a case identifier, but some may provide extra information if one is present (e.g., cluster assignments). All supervised algorithms require a target column name. A model name can be specified (or defaults to an algorithm-specific model name). When created, the model will exist in Oracle as a database schema object. Most algorithms accept a parameter to direct ODM to enable automatic data preparation (default TRUE). This feature will request that ODM prepare data as befitting individual algorithm needs (e.g., outlier treatment, binning, normalization, missing value imputation). Many algorithms accept a number of expert settings. These expert settings will differ from algorithm to algorithm, and ODM is designed to identify values for these settings without user input, hence they do not need to be specified by the user in most situations. When the models are created in the database, information regarding the models can be retrieved and returned to the R environment. The retrieve_outputs_to_R parameter tells RODM whether or not this information should be pulled back into R for further analysis in R. As these models are database schema objects, they can be left in the database for future use. They can be applied to new data as desired. The default behavior is to leave the models in the database, but they can be automatically cleaned up by changing the leave_model_in_dbms parameter. If a model with the same name already exists in the database schema when another is being created, the previous model will be automatically dropped. Finally, the RODM package is envisioned as a quick proof of concept mechanism, with the potential of deploying the resulting methodology wholly within Oracle. As such, it is necessary to capture the SQL that would be used in the database. The sql.log.file parameter can be used to have RODM produce a file with the relevant SQL statements that comprise the work being performed.
Further operations involving ODM models:
Finally, there are a few routines involving ODM models once they are built. The list of accessible ODM models can be retrieved, and individual models can be dropped. Models (other than those used for Attribute Importance and Associations) can be applied to new data in the database. Regression models will produce the expected value given the input variables. Classification models will produce the probability distribution across target classes for each case, as well as a column indicating the winning class. Clustering models will produce the probability distribution across clusters for each case, as well as a column indicating the most likely cluster assignment. In all cases, additional columns from the test/apply dataset can be included in the output via the supplemental_cols parameter. It is necessary to provide some information here if there is a desire to link the results back to the original data. Either a case identifier should be provided, or the list of columns which will yield sufficient information for future analysis.
Pablo Tamayo [email protected]
Ari Mozes [email protected]
Maintainer: Pablo Tamayo [email protected]
Oracle Data Mining Concepts 11g Release 1 (11.1) http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/datamine.111/b28129/toc.htm
Oracle Data Mining Application Developer's Guide 11g Release 1 (11.1) http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/datamine.111/b28131/toc.htm
Oracle Data Mining Administrator's Guide 11g Release 1 (11.1) http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/datamine.111/b28130/toc.htm
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference 11g Release 1 (11.1) http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/appdev.111/b28419/d_datmin.htm#ARPLS192
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference (Data Mining functions) 11g Release 1 (11.1) http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/server.111/b28286/functions001.htm#SQLRF20030
Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, David G. Stork, Pattern Classification (2nd Edition). John Wiley & Sons 2001.
Wikipedia entry for Oracle Data Mining. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oracle_Data_Mining
P. Tamayo, C. Berger, M. M. Campos, J. S. Yarmus, B. L.Milenova, A. Mozes, M. Taft, M. Hornick, R. Krishnan, S.Thomas, M. Kelly, D. Mukhin, R. Haberstroh, S. Stephens and J. Myczkowski. Oracle Data Mining - Data Mining in the Database Environment. In Part VII of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Handbook, Maimon, O.; Rokach, L. (Eds.) 2005, p315-1329, ISBN-10: 0-387-24435-2.
Oracle Data Mining: Mining Gold from Your Warehouse, (Oracle In-Focus series), by Dr. Carolyn Hamm.
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