PND - desired values below the reference line

Description

This effect size function evaluates the percentage of non-overlapping data (PND) below the lowest data point in the comparison phase.

Usage

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PNDbelow(behavior, phaseX, v1, v2)

Arguments

behavior

behavior variable

phaseX

phase variable

v1

comparison phase variable (e.g., "A")

v2

second phase variable (e.g., "B")

Author(s)

Charles Auerbach, PhD & Wendy Zeitlin, PhD; Yeshiva University, Wurzweiler School of Social Work

References

Lenz, A.S. (2012). Calculating effect size in single-case research: A comparison of nonoverlap methods. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 46(1), 64-73.

Scruggs, T.E. & Mastropieri, M.A. (2012). PND at 25: Past, present, and future trends in summarizing single-subject research. Remedial and Special Education, 34(1), 9-19.

Auerbach, Charles, and Zeitlin Wendy. SSD for R: An R Package for Analyzing Single-Subject Data. Oxford University Press, 2014. p60, p137

Lenz, A.S. (2012). Calculating effect size in single-case research: A comparison of nonoverlap methods. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 46(1), 64-73.

Parker, R.I. & Hagan-Burker, S. & Vannest, K. (2007). Percentage of all non-overlapping data: An alternative to PND. The Journal of Special Education, 40(4), 194-204.

Go to www.ssdanalysis.com for more information.

Examples

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3
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cry<-c(3, 4, 2, 5, 3, 4, NA, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2, NA, 2, 2, 1, 2, 1, 0, 0, 0)
pcry<-c("A", "A", "A", "A", "A", "A", NA, "B", "B", "B", "B", "B", "B", 
NA, "B1", "B1", "B1", "B1", "B1", "B1", "B1", "B1")
PNDbelow(cry,pcry,"A","B1")

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