# Correlated Systems of Statistical Equations with Non-Mixture and Mixture Continuous Variables" In SimRepeat: Simulation of Correlated Systems of Equations with Multiple Variable Types

knitr::opts_chunkset(echo = TRUE, warning=FALSE, message=FALSE, fig.align = 'center', fig.width = 6, fig.height = 4, cache = FALSE)  library("bookdown")  Systems of statistical equations with correlated variables are common in clinical and genetic studies. These systems may represent repeated measurements or clustered observations. @HeadBeas developed a method for simulating correlated systems of equations containing normal or non-normal continuous variables. The technique allows the user to specify the distributions of the independent variablesX_{(pj)}$, for$p = 1, ..., M$equations, and stochastic disturbance (error) terms$E$. The user also controls the correlations between: 1) independent variables$X_{(pj)}$for a given outcome$Y_p$, 2) an outcome$Y_p$and its$X_{(pj)}$terms, and 3) stochastic disturbance (error) terms$E$. Their technique calculates the beta (slope) coefficients based on correlations between independent variables$X_{(pj)}$for a given outcome$Y_p$, the correlations between that outcome$Y_p$and the$X_{(pj)}$terms, and the variances. @HeadBeas also derived equations to calculate the expected correlations based on these betas between: 1)$X_{(pj)}$terms and outcome$Y_q$, 2) outcomes$Y_p$and$Y_q$, and 3) outcome$Y_p$and error term$E_q$, for$p$not equal to$q$. All continuous variables are generated from intermediate random normal variables using @Head2002's fifth-order power transformation method (PMT). The intermediate correlations required to generate the target correlations after variable transformations are calculated using @Head2002's equation. The package SimRepeat extends @HeadBeas's method to include continuous variables (independent variables or error terms) that have mixture distributions. The nonnormsys function simulates the system of equations containing correlated continuous normal or non-normal variables with non-mixture or mixture distributions. Mixture distributions are generated using the techniques of @SimCorrMix. Mixture distributions describe random variables that are drawn from more than one component distribution. Mixture distributions provide a useful way for describing heterogeneity in a population, especially when an outcome is a composite response from multiple sources. For a random variable$Y$from a finite mixture distribution with$k$components, the PDF can be described by: [h_{Y}(y) = \sum_{i=1}^{k} \pi_{i} f_{Y_{i}}(y),] where$\sum_{i=1}^{k} \pi_{i} = 1$. The$\pi_{i}$are mixing parameters which determine the weight of each component distribution$f_{Y_{i}}(y)$in the overall probability distribution. The overall distribution$h_{Y}(y)$has a valid PDF if each component distribution has a valid PDF. The main assumption is statistical independence between the process of randomly selecting the component distribution and the distributions themselves. Assume there is a random selection process that first generates the numbers$1,\ ...,\ k$with probabilities$\pi_{1},\ ...,\ \pi_{k}$. After selecting number$i$, where$1 \leq i \leq k$, a random variable$y$is drawn from component distribution$f_{Y_{i}}(y)$[@Dave; @Schork; @Everitt; @Pears]. The package SimCorrMix contains vignettes describing mixture variables. Continuous mixture variables are generated componentwise and then transformed to the desired mixture variables using random multinomial variables generated based on mixing probabilities. The correlation matrices are specified in terms of correlations with components of the mixture variables. @HeadBeas's equations have been adapted in SimRepeat to permit mixture variables. These are contained in the functions calc_betas, calc_corr_y, calc_corr_ye, and calc_corr_yx. The package SimRepeat also allows the user to specify the correlations between independent variables across outcomes (i.e.,$X_{(pj)}$and$X_{(qj)}$for$p$not equal to$q$). This allows imposing a specific correlation structure (i.e., AR(1) or Toeplitz) on time-varying covariates. Independent variables can be designated as the same across outcomes (i.e., to include a stationary covariate as in height). Continuous variables are generated using the techniques of @SMCD, which permits either @Fleish's third-order (method = "Fleishman") or @Head2002's fifth-order (method = "Polynomial") PMT. When using the fifth-order method, sixth cumulant corrections can be specified in order to obtain random variables with valid probability distribution functions (PDF's). The error loop from SimCorrMix can be used within the nonnormsys function to attempt to correct the final correlations among all$X$terms to be within a user-specified precision value (epsilon) of the target correlations. The following examples demonstrate usage of the nonnormsys function. Example 1 is @HeadBeas's example from their paper. Example 2 gives a system with non-mixture and mixture variables. Example 3 gives a system with missing variables. Details about theory and equations are in the Theory and Equations for Correlated Systems of Continuous Variables vignette. ## Example 1: System of three equations for 2 independent variables {-} In this example taken from @HeadBeas: 1.$X_{11}, X_{21}, X_{31}$each have Exponential(2) distribution 2.$X_{12}, X_{22}, X_{32}$each have Laplace(0, 1) distribution 3.$E_1, E_2, E_3$each have Cauchy(0, 1) distribution (the standardized cumulants were taken from the paper) \begin{split} Y_1 &= \beta_{10} + \beta_{11} * X_{11} + \beta_{12} * X_{12} + E_1 \ Y_2 &= \beta_{20} + \beta_{21} * X_{21} + \beta_{22} * X_{22} + E_2 \ Y_3 &= \beta_{30} + \beta_{31} * X_{31} + \beta_{32} * X_{32} + E_3 \end{split} (#eq:System1) Each term was generated with zero mean and unit variance. All intercepts were set at$0$. The correlations were given as: 1.$\rho_{X_{11}, X_{12}} = 0.10$,$\rho_{X_{21}, X_{22}} = 0.35$,$\rho_{X_{31}, X_{32}} = 0.70$2.$\rho_{Y_1, X_{11}} = \rho_{Y_1, X_{12}} = 0.40$,$\rho_{Y_2, X_{21}} = \rho_{Y_2, X_{22}} = 0.50$,$\rho_{Y_3, X_{31}} = \rho_{Y_3, X_{32}} = 0.60$3.$\rho_{E_1, E_2} = \rho_{E_1, E_3} = \rho_{E_2, E_3} = 0.40$The across outcome correlations between$X$terms were set as below in order to obtain the same results as in the paper. No sixth cumulant corrections were used, although the Laplace(0, 1) distribution requires a correction of$25.14$in order to have a valid PDF. ### Step 1: Set up parameter inputs {-} library("SimRepeat") library("printr") options(scipen = 999) seed <- 111 n <- 10000 M <- 3 method <- "Polynomial" Stcum1 <- calc_theory("Exponential", 2) Stcum2 <- calc_theory("Laplace", c(0, 1)) Stcum3 <- c(0, 1, 0, 25, 0, 1500) means <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) rep(0, 3)) vars <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) rep(1, 3)) skews <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) c(Stcum1[3], Stcum2[3], Stcum3[3])) skurts <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) c(Stcum1[4], Stcum2[4], Stcum3[4])) fifths <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) c(Stcum1[5], Stcum2[5], Stcum3[5])) sixths <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) c(Stcum1[6], Stcum2[6], Stcum3[6])) Six <- list() # Note the following would be used to obtain all valid PDF's # Six <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) list(NULL, 25.14, NULL)) betas.0 <- 0 corr.x <- list() corr.x[[1]] <- corr.x[[2]] <- corr.x[[3]] <- list() corr.x[[1]][[1]] <- matrix(c(1, 0.1, 0.1, 1), nrow = 2, ncol = 2) corr.x[[1]][[2]] <- matrix(c(0.1974318, 0.1859656, 0.1879483, 0.1858601), 2, 2, byrow = TRUE) corr.x[[1]][[3]] <- matrix(c(0.2873190, 0.2589830, 0.2682057, 0.2589542), 2, 2, byrow = TRUE) corr.x[[2]][[1]] <- t(corr.x[[1]][[2]]) corr.x[[2]][[2]] <- matrix(c(1, 0.35, 0.35, 1), nrow = 2, ncol = 2) corr.x[[2]][[3]] <- matrix(c(0.5723303, 0.4883054, 0.5004441, 0.4841808), 2, 2, byrow = TRUE) corr.x[[3]][[1]] <- t(corr.x[[1]][[3]]) corr.x[[3]][[2]] <- t(corr.x[[2]][[3]]) corr.x[[3]][[3]] <- matrix(c(1, 0.7, 0.7, 1), nrow = 2, ncol = 2) corr.yx <- list(matrix(c(0.4, 0.4), 1), matrix(c(0.5, 0.5), 1), matrix(c(0.6, 0.6), 1)) corr.e <- matrix(0.4, nrow = M, ncol = M) diag(corr.e) <- 1 error_type <- "non_mix"  ### Step 2: Check parameter inputs {-} checkpar(M, method, error_type, means, vars, skews, skurts, fifths, sixths, Six, betas.0 = betas.0, corr.x = corr.x, corr.yx = corr.yx, corr.e = corr.e, quiet = TRUE)  ### Step 3: Generate system {-} Sys1 <- nonnormsys(n, M, method, error_type, means, vars, skews, skurts, fifths, sixths, Six, betas.0 = betas.0, corr.x = corr.x, corr.yx = corr.yx, corr.e = corr.e, seed = seed, quiet = TRUE)  knitr::kable(Sys1$betas, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Beta coefficients")

knitr::kable(Sys1$constants[[1]], booktabs = TRUE, caption = "PMT constants") Sys1$valid.pdf


### Step 4: Describe results {-}

Sum1 <- summary_sys(Sys1$Y, Sys1$E, E_mix = NULL, Sys1$X, Sys1$X_all, M,
method, means, vars, skews, skurts, fifths, sixths, corr.x = corr.x,
corr.e = corr.e)

knitr::kable(Sum1$cont_sum_y, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Distributions of Outcomes")  knitr::kable(Sum1$target_sum_x, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Target Distributions of Independent Variables")

knitr::kable(Sum1$cont_sum_x, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Distributions of Independent Variables")  knitr::kable(Sum1$target_sum_e, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Target Distributions of Error Terms")

knitr::kable(Sum1$cont_sum_e, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Distributions of Error Terms")  Maximum Correlation Errors for X Variables by Outcome: maxerr <- do.call(rbind, Sum1$maxerr)
rownames(maxerr) <- colnames(maxerr) <- paste("Y", 1:M, sep = "")
knitr::kable(as.data.frame(maxerr), digits = 5, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Maximum Correlation Errors for X Variables")


### Step 5: Compare simulated correlations to theoretical values {-}

knitr::kable(calc_corr_y(Sys1$betas, corr.x, corr.e, vars), booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Expected Y Correlations")  knitr::kable(Sum1$rho.y, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Simulated Y Correlations")

knitr::kable(calc_corr_ye(Sys1$betas, corr.x, corr.e, vars), booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Expected Y, E Correlations")  knitr::kable(Sum1$rho.ye,
booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Y, E Correlations")

knitr::kable(calc_corr_yx(Sys1$betas, corr.x, vars), booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Expected Y, X Correlations")  knitr::kable(Sum1$rho.yx,
booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Y, X Correlations")


## Example 2: System of 3 equations, each with 2 continuous non-mixture covariates and 1 mixture covariate {-}

In this example:

1. $X_{11} = X_{21} = X_{31}$ has a Logistic(0, 1) distribution and is the same variable for each Y (static covariate)

2. $X_{12}, X_{22}, X_{32}$ each have a Beta(4, 1.5) distribution

3. $X_{13}, X_{23}, X_{33}$ each have a Normal(-2, 1), Normal(2, 1) mixture distribution

4. $E_1, E_2, E_3$ each have a Logistic(0, 1), Chisq(4), Beta(4, 1.5) mixture distribution

\begin{split}
Y_1 &= \beta_{10} + \beta_{11} * X_{11} + \beta_{12} * X_{12} + \beta_{13} * X_{13} + E_1 \ Y_2 &= \beta_{20} + \beta_{21} * X_{11} + \beta_{22} * X_{22} + \beta_{23} * X_{23} + E_2 \ Y_3 &= \beta_{30} + \beta_{31} * X_{11} + \beta_{32} * X_{32} + \beta_{33} * X_{33} + E_3 \end{split}
(#eq:System2)

### Step 1: Set up parameter inputs {-}

seed <- 276
n <- 10000
M <- 3

method <- "Polynomial"
L <- calc_theory("Logistic", c(0, 1))
C <- calc_theory("Chisq", 4)
B <- calc_theory("Beta", c(4, 1.5))

skews <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) c(L[3], B[3]))
skurts <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) c(L[4], B[4]))
fifths <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) c(L[5], B[5]))
sixths <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) c(L[6], B[6]))
Six <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) list(1.75, 0.03))

mix_pis <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) list(c(0.4, 0.6), c(0.3, 0.2, 0.5)))
mix_mus <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) list(c(-2, 2), c(L[1], C[1], B[1])))
mix_sigmas <- lapply(seq_len(M),
function(x) list(c(1, 1), c(L[2], C[2], B[2])))
mix_skews <- lapply(seq_len(M),
function(x) list(c(0, 0), c(L[3], C[3], B[3])))
mix_skurts <- lapply(seq_len(M),
function(x) list(c(0, 0), c(L[4], C[4], B[4])))
mix_fifths <- lapply(seq_len(M),
function(x) list(c(0, 0), c(L[5], C[5], B[5])))
mix_sixths <- lapply(seq_len(M),
function(x) list(c(0, 0), c(L[6], C[6], B[6])))
mix_Six <- lapply(seq_len(M), function(x) list(NULL, NULL, 1.75, NULL, 0.03))
Nstcum <- calc_mixmoments(mix_pis[[1]][[1]], mix_mus[[1]][[1]],
mix_sigmas[[1]][[1]], mix_skews[[1]][[1]], mix_skurts[[1]][[1]],
mix_fifths[[1]][[1]], mix_sixths[[1]][[1]])
Mstcum <- calc_mixmoments(mix_pis[[2]][[2]], mix_mus[[2]][[2]],
mix_sigmas[[2]][[2]], mix_skews[[2]][[2]], mix_skurts[[2]][[2]],
mix_fifths[[2]][[2]], mix_sixths[[2]][[2]])
means <- lapply(seq_len(M),
function(x) c(L[1], B[1], Nstcum[1], Mstcum[1]))
vars <- lapply(seq_len(M),
function(x) c(L[2]^2, B[2]^2, Nstcum[2]^2, Mstcum[2]^2))

same.var <- 1
betas.0 <- 0

corr.x <- list()
corr.x[[1]] <- list(matrix(0.1, 4, 4), matrix(0.2, 4, 4), matrix(0.3, 4, 4))
diag(corr.x[[1]][[1]]) <- 1

# set correlations between components of the same mixture variable to 0
corr.x[[1]][[1]][3:4, 3:4] <- diag(2)

# since X1 is the same across outcomes, set correlation the same
corr.x[[1]][[2]][, same.var] <- corr.x[[1]][[3]][, same.var] <-
corr.x[[1]][[1]][, same.var]

corr.x[[2]] <- list(t(corr.x[[1]][[2]]), matrix(0.35, 4, 4), matrix(0.4, 4, 4))
diag(corr.x[[2]][[2]]) <- 1

# set correlations between components of the same mixture variable to 0
corr.x[[2]][[2]][3:4, 3:4] <- diag(2)

# since X1 is the same across outcomes, set correlation the same
corr.x[[2]][[2]][, same.var] <- corr.x[[2]][[3]][, same.var] <-
t(corr.x[[1]][[2]][same.var, ])
corr.x[[2]][[3]][same.var, ] <- corr.x[[1]][[3]][same.var, ]
corr.x[[2]][[2]][same.var, ] <- t(corr.x[[2]][[2]][, same.var])

corr.x[[3]] <- list(t(corr.x[[1]][[3]]), t(corr.x[[2]][[3]]),
matrix(0.5, 4, 4))
diag(corr.x[[3]][[3]]) <- 1

# set correlations between components of the same mixture variable to 0
corr.x[[3]][[3]][3:4, 3:4] <- diag(2)

# since X1 is the same across outcomes, set correlation the same
corr.x[[3]][[3]][, same.var] <- t(corr.x[[1]][[3]][same.var, ])
corr.x[[3]][[3]][same.var, ] <- t(corr.x[[3]][[3]][, same.var])

corr.yx <- list(matrix(0.3, 1, 4), matrix(0.4, 1, 4), matrix(0.5, 1, 4))

corr.e <- matrix(0.4, 9, 9)
corr.e[1:3, 1:3] <- corr.e[4:6, 4:6] <- corr.e[7:9, 7:9] <- diag(3)
error_type = "mix"


### Step 2: Check parameter inputs {-}

checkpar(M, method, error_type, means, vars, skews, skurts, fifths, sixths,
Six, mix_pis, mix_mus, mix_sigmas, mix_skews, mix_skurts, mix_fifths,
mix_sixths, mix_Six, same.var = same.var, betas.0 = betas.0, corr.x = corr.x,
corr.yx = corr.yx, corr.e = corr.e, quiet = TRUE)


### Step 3: Generate system {-}

Note that use.nearPD = FALSE and adjgrad = FALSE so that negative eigen-values will be replaced with eigmin (default $0$) instead of using the nearest positive-definite matrix (found with @Matrix's Matrix::nearPD function by @Higham's algorithm) or the adjusted gradient updating method via adj_grad [@YinZhang1;@YinZhang2;@Maree].

Sys2 <- nonnormsys(n, M, method, error_type, means, vars, skews, skurts,
fifths, sixths, Six, mix_pis, mix_mus, mix_sigmas, mix_skews, mix_skurts,
mix_fifths, mix_sixths, mix_Six, same.var, betas.0, corr.x, corr.yx, corr.e,
seed, use.nearPD = FALSE, quiet = TRUE)

knitr::kable(Sys2$betas, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Beta coefficients")  knitr::kable(Sys2$constants[[1]], booktabs = TRUE, caption = "PMT constants")
Sys2$valid.pdf  ### Step 4: Describe results {-} Sum2 <- summary_sys(Sys2$Y, Sys2$E, Sys2$E_mix, Sys2$X, Sys2$X_all, M, method,
means, vars, skews, skurts, fifths, sixths, mix_pis, mix_mus, mix_sigmas,
mix_skews, mix_skurts, mix_fifths, mix_sixths, corr.x = corr.x,
corr.e = corr.e)

knitr::kable(Sum2$cont_sum_y, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Distributions of Outcomes")  knitr::kable(Sum2$target_sum_x, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Target Distributions of Independent Variables")

knitr::kable(Sum2$cont_sum_x, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Distributions of Independent Variables")  knitr::kable(Sum2$target_mix_x, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Target Distributions of Mixture Independent Variables")

knitr::kable(Sum2$mix_sum_x, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Distributions of Mixture Independent Variables")  Nplot <- plot_simpdf_theory(sim_y = Sys2$X_all[[1]][, 3], ylower = -10,
yupper = 10,
title = "PDF of X_11: Mixture of N(-2, 1) and N(2, 1) Distributions",
fx = function(x) mix_pis[[1]][[1]][1] * dnorm(x, mix_mus[[1]][[1]][1],
mix_sigmas[[1]][[1]][1]) + mix_pis[[1]][[1]][2] *
dnorm(x, mix_mus[[1]][[1]][2], mix_sigmas[[1]][[1]][2]),
lower = -Inf, upper = Inf)
Nplot

knitr::kable(Sum2$target_mix_e, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Target Distributions of Mixture Error Terms")  knitr::kable(Sum2$mix_sum_e, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Simulated Distributions of Mixture Error Terms")

Mplot <- plot_simpdf_theory(sim_y = Sys2$E_mix[, 1], title = paste("PDF of E_1: Mixture of Logistic(0, 1), Chisq(4),", "\nand Beta(4, 1.5) Distributions", sep = ""), fx = function(x) mix_pis[[1]][[2]][1] * dlogis(x, 0, 1) + mix_pis[[1]][[2]][2] * dchisq(x, 4) + mix_pis[[1]][[2]][3] * dbeta(x, 4, 1.5), lower = -Inf, upper = Inf) Mplot  Maximum Correlation Errors for X Variables by Outcome: maxerr <- do.call(rbind, Sum2$maxerr)
rownames(maxerr) <- colnames(maxerr) <- paste("Y", 1:M, sep = "")
knitr::kable(as.data.frame(maxerr), digits = 5, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Maximum Correlation Errors for X Variables")


### Step 5: Compare simulated correlations to theoretical values {-}

Since the system contains mixture variables, the mixture parameter inputs mix_pis, mix_mus, and mix_sigmas and the error_type must also be used.

knitr::kable(calc_corr_y(Sys2$betas, corr.x, corr.e, vars, mix_pis, mix_mus, mix_sigmas, "mix"), booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Expected Y Correlations")  knitr::kable(Sum2$rho.y, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Simulated Y Correlations")

knitr::kable(calc_corr_ye(Sys2$betas, corr.x, corr.e, vars, mix_pis, mix_mus, mix_sigmas, "mix"), booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Expected Y, E Correlations")  knitr::kable(Sum2$rho.yemix, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Simulated Y, E Correlations")

knitr::kable(calc_corr_yx(Sys2$betas, corr.x, vars, mix_pis, mix_mus, mix_sigmas, "mix"), booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Expected Y, X Correlations")  knitr::kable(Sum2$rho.yx, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Simulated Y, X Correlations")


## Example 3: System of 3 equations, $Y_1$ and $Y_3$ as in Example 2, $Y_2$ has only error term {-}

In this example:

1. $X_{11} = X_{31}$ has a Logistic(0, 1) distribution and is the same variable for $Y_1$ and $Y_3$

2. $X_{12}, X_{32}$ have Beta(4, 1.5) distributions

3. $X_{13}, X_{33}$ have normal mixture distributions

4. $E_1, E_2, E_3$ have Logistic, Chisq, Beta mixture distributions

\begin{split}
Y_1 &= \beta_{10} + \beta_{11} * X_{11} + \beta_{12} * X_{12} + \beta_{13} * X_{13} + E_1 \ Y_2 &= \beta_{20} + E_2 \ Y_3 &= \beta_{30} + \beta_{31} * X_{11} + \beta_{32} * X_{32} + \beta_{33} * X_{33} + E_3 \end{split}
(#eq:System3)

### Step 1: Set up parameter inputs {-}

seed <- 276
n <- 10000
M <- 3

method <- "Polynomial"
L <- calc_theory("Logistic", c(0, 1))
C <- calc_theory("Chisq", 4)
B <- calc_theory("Beta", c(4, 1.5))

skews <- list(c(L[3], B[3]), NULL, c(L[3], B[3]))
skurts <- list(c(L[4], B[4]), NULL, c(L[4], B[4]))
fifths <- list(c(L[5], B[5]), NULL, c(L[5], B[5]))
sixths <- list(c(L[6], B[6]), NULL, c(L[6], B[6]))
Six <- list(list(1.75, 0.03), NULL, list(1.75, 0.03))

mix_pis <- list(list(c(0.4, 0.6), c(0.3, 0.2, 0.5)), list(c(0.3, 0.2, 0.5)),
list(c(0.4, 0.6), c(0.3, 0.2, 0.5)))
mix_mus <- list(list(c(-2, 2), c(L[1], C[1], B[1])), list(c(L[1], C[1], B[1])),
list(c(-2, 2), c(L[1], C[1], B[1])))
mix_sigmas <- list(list(c(1, 1), c(L[2], C[2], B[2])),
list(c(L[2], C[2], B[2])), list(c(1, 1), c(L[2], C[2], B[2])))
mix_skews <- list(list(c(0, 0), c(L[3], C[3], B[3])),
list(c(L[3], C[3], B[3])), list(c(0, 0), c(L[3], C[3], B[3])))
mix_skurts <- list(list(c(0, 0), c(L[4], C[4], B[4])),
list(c(L[4], C[4], B[4])),list(c(0, 0), c(L[4], C[4], B[4])))
mix_fifths <- list(list(c(0, 0), c(L[5], C[5], B[5])),
list(c(L[5], C[5], B[5])), list(c(0, 0), c(L[5], C[5], B[5])))
mix_sixths <- list(list(c(0, 0), c(L[6], C[6], B[6])),
list(c(L[6], C[6], B[6])), list(c(0, 0), c(L[6], C[6], B[6])))
mix_Six <- list(list(NULL, NULL, 1.75, NULL, 0.03), list(1.75, NULL, 0.03),
list(NULL, NULL, 1.75, NULL, 0.03))
means <- list(c(L[1], B[1], Nstcum[1], Mstcum[1]), Mstcum[1],
c(L[1], B[1], Nstcum[1], Mstcum[1]))
vars <- list(c(L[2]^2, B[2]^2, Nstcum[2]^2, Mstcum[2]^2), Mstcum[2]^2,
c(L[2]^2, B[2]^2, Nstcum[2]^2, Mstcum[2]^2))

# since Y_2 has no X variables, same.var must be changed to a matrix
same.var <- matrix(c(1, 1, 3, 1), 1, 4)

corr.x <- list(list(matrix(0.1, 4, 4), NULL, matrix(0.3, 4, 4)), NULL)
diag(corr.x[[1]][[1]]) <- 1

# set correlations between components of the same mixture variable to 0
corr.x[[1]][[1]][3:4, 3:4] <- diag(2)

# since X1 is the same across outcomes, set correlation the same
corr.x[[1]][[3]][, 1] <- corr.x[[1]][[1]][, 1]

corr.x <- append(corr.x, list(list(t(corr.x[[1]][[3]]), NULL, matrix(0.5, 4, 4))))
diag(corr.x[[3]][[3]]) <- 1

# set correlations between components of the same mixture variable to 0
corr.x[[3]][[3]][3:4, 3:4] <- diag(2)

# since X1 is the same across outcomes, set correlation the same
corr.x[[3]][[3]][, 1] <- t(corr.x[[1]][[3]][1, ])
corr.x[[3]][[3]][1, ] <- t(corr.x[[3]][[3]][, 1])

corr.yx <- list(matrix(0.3, 1, 4), NULL, matrix(0.5, 1, 4))

corr.e <- matrix(0.4, 9, 9)
corr.e[1:3, 1:3] <- corr.e[4:6, 4:6] <- corr.e[7:9, 7:9] <- diag(3)
error_type = "mix"


### Step 2: Check parameter inputs {-}

checkpar(M, method, error_type, means, vars, skews, skurts, fifths, sixths,
Six, mix_pis, mix_mus, mix_sigmas, mix_skews, mix_skurts, mix_fifths,
mix_sixths, mix_Six, same.var = same.var, betas.0 = betas.0, corr.x = corr.x,
corr.yx = corr.yx, corr.e = corr.e, quiet = TRUE)


### Step 3: Generate system {-}

Sys3 <- nonnormsys(n, M, method, error_type, means, vars, skews, skurts,
fifths, sixths, Six, mix_pis, mix_mus, mix_sigmas, mix_skews, mix_skurts,
mix_fifths, mix_sixths, mix_Six, same.var, betas.0, corr.x, corr.yx, corr.e,
seed, use.nearPD = FALSE, quiet = TRUE)

knitr::kable(Sys3$betas, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Beta coefficients")  knitr::kable(Sys3$constants[[1]], booktabs = TRUE, caption = "PMT constants")
Sys3$valid.pdf  ### Step 4: Describe results {-} Sum3 <- summary_sys(Sys3$Y, Sys3$E, Sys3$E_mix, Sys3$X, Sys3$X_all, M, method,
means, vars, skews, skurts, fifths, sixths, mix_pis, mix_mus, mix_sigmas,
mix_skews, mix_skurts, mix_fifths, mix_sixths, corr.x = corr.x,
corr.e = corr.e)

knitr::kable(Sum3$cont_sum_y, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Distributions of Outcomes")  knitr::kable(Sum3$target_sum_x, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Target Distributions of Independent Variables")

knitr::kable(Sum3$cont_sum_x, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Distributions of Independent Variables")  knitr::kable(Sum3$target_mix_x, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Target Distributions of Mixture Independent Variables")

knitr::kable(Sum3$mix_sum_x, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Distributions of Mixture Independent Variables")  knitr::kable(Sum3$target_mix_e, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Target Distributions of Mixture Error Terms")

knitr::kable(Sum3$mix_sum_e, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Distributions of Mixture Error Terms")  Maximum Correlation Errors for X Variables by Outcome: maxerr <- rbind(Sum3$maxerr[[1]][-2], Sum3$maxerr[[3]][-2]) rownames(maxerr) <- colnames(maxerr) <- c("Y1", "Y3") knitr::kable(as.data.frame(maxerr), digits = 5, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Maximum Correlation Errors for X Variables")  ### Step 5: Compare simulated correlations to theoretical values {-} knitr::kable(calc_corr_y(Sys3$betas, corr.x, corr.e, vars, mix_pis,
mix_mus, mix_sigmas, "mix"), booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Expected Y Correlations")

knitr::kable(Sum3$rho.y, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Y Correlations")  knitr::kable(calc_corr_ye(Sys3$betas, corr.x, corr.e, vars, mix_pis,
mix_mus, mix_sigmas, "mix"), booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Expected Y, E Correlations")

knitr::kable(Sum3$rho.yemix, booktabs = TRUE, caption = "Simulated Y, E Correlations")  knitr::kable(calc_corr_yx(Sys3$betas, corr.x, vars, mix_pis,
mix_mus, mix_sigmas, "mix"), booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Expected Y, X Correlations")

knitr::kable(Sum3\$rho.yx, booktabs = TRUE,
caption = "Simulated Y, X Correlations")


# References {-}

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SimRepeat documentation built on May 2, 2019, 9:32 a.m.