Writing Stan code

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The package allows for only limited models as, e.g., neither random slopes, nor interaction effects are allowed. Imposing this restriction was a design decision, as it would require duplicating functionality of general purposes packages. Instead, the package itself provides some basic fitting that should be sufficient for most simple cases. However, below you will find example of how to incorporate cumulative history into a model written in Stan. This way, you can achieve maximal flexibility but still save time by reusing the code.

Stan model

This is a complete Stan code for a model with log-normal distribution for multiple runs from a single experimental session of a single participant. The history time-constant tau is fitted, whereas constants are used for other cumulative history parameters.

```{stan output.var="example_model", eval=FALSE} data{ // --- Complete time-series --- int rowsN; // Number of rows in the COMPLETE multi-timeseries table including mixed phase. real duration[rowsN]; // Duration of a dominance/transition phase int istate[rowsN]; // Index of a dominance istate, 1 and 2 code for two competing clear states, 3 - transition/mixed. int is_used[rowsN]; // Whether history value must used to predict duration or ignored // (mixed phases, warm-up period, last, etc.) int run_start[rowsN]; // 1 marks a beginning of the new time-series (run/block/etc.) real session_tmean[rowsN]; // Mean dominance phase duration for both CLEAR percepts. Used to scale time-constant.

// --- A shorter clear-states only time-series ---
int clearN;                  // Number of rows in the clear-states only time-series
real clear_duration[clearN]; // Duration for clear percepts only.

// --- Cumulative history parameters
real<lower=0, upper=1> history_starting_values[2]; // Starting values for cumulative history at the beginning of the run
real<lower=0, upper=1> mixed_state;                // Mixed state signal strength
real<lower=0, upper=1> history_mix; // Proportion of history mixing

} parameters { real tau; // history time-constant

// linear model for mu
real a;
real bH;

// variance
real<lower=0> sigma;

} transformed parameters{ vector[clearN] mu; // vector of computed mu for each clear percept

    // temporary variables
    real current_history[2]; // current computed history
    real tau_H;              // tau in the units of time
    real hmix;               // computed history mixture
    int iC = 1;              // Index of clear percepts used for fitting

    // matrix with signal levels
    matrix[2, 3] level = [[1, 0, mixed_state], 
                          [0, 1, mixed_state]];

    for(iT in 1:rowsN){
        // new time-series, recompute absolute tau and reset history state
        if (run_start[iT]){
            // reset history
            current_history = history_starting_values;

            // Recompute tau in units of time. 
            // This is relevant only for multiple sessions / participants.
            // However, we left this code for generality.
            tau_H = session_tmean[iT] * tau;

        // for valid percepts, we use history to compute mu
        if (is_used[iT] == 1){
            // history mixture
            hmix = history_mix * current_history[istate[iT]] +
                  (1 - history_mix) * current_history[3-istate[iT]];

            // linear model for mu
            mu[iC] = a + bH * hmix;
            iC += 1;

        // computing history for the NEXT episode
        // see vignette on cumulative history
        for(iState in 1:2){
            current_history[iState] = level[iState, istate[iT]] + 
              (current_history[iState] - level[iState, istate[iT]]) * exp(-duration[iT] / tau_H);

} model{ // sampling individual parameters tau ~ lognormal(log(1), 0.75); a ~ normal(log(3), 5); bH ~ normal(0, 1); sigma ~ exponential(1);

// sampling data using computed mu and sampled sigma clear_duration ~ lognormal(exp(mu), sigma); }

## Data preparation
The `data` section defines model inputs. Hopefully, the comments make understanding it fairly straightforward although it has several features that while not needed for the limited single session / single session example would make it easier to generalized the code for more complicated cases. 

For example, not all dominance phases are used for fitting. Specifically, we excluded all mixed perception phases, first dominance phase for each percept (not enough time to form reliably history) and last dominance phase (curtailed by the end of the block). Valid dominance phases are marked in `is_used` vector. Their total number is stored in `clearN` variable and the actual dominance durations in `clear_duration`. The latter is not strictly necessary but allows us to avoid a loop and vectorize the sampling statement `clear_duration ~ lognormal(exp(mu), sigma);`.

In addition, `session_tmean` is a vector rather than a scalar. This is not necessary for a single session example here but we opted to use as it will better generalize for more complicated cases.

bistability package provides a service function `preprocess_data()` that simplifies the process of preparing the data. However, you need to perform the last step, forming a list of inputs for Stan sampling, yourself.
# function that checks data for internal consistency and returns a preprocessed table
df <- bistablehistory::preprocess_data(br_single_subject, 

# data for Stan model
stan_data <- list(
  # complete time-series
  rowsN = nrow(df),
  duration = df$duration,
  istate = df$istate,
  is_used = df$is_used,
  run_start = df$run_start,
  session_tmean = df$session_tmean,

  # only valid clear percepts
  clearN = sum(df$is_used),
  clear_duration = df$duration[df$is_used == 1],

  # history parameters, all fixed to default values
  history_starting_values = c(0, 0),
  mixed_state = 0.5,
  history_mix = 0.2

Using the model

You can use this model either with rstan or cmdstanr packages. Below is in an example using cmdstanr, assuming that model file is called example.stan.

# compile the model
model <- cmdstanr::cmdstan_model("example.stan")

# sample model
fit <- model$sample(data=stan_data, chains=1)

# extract posterior samples for tau parameter
tau <- fit$draws(variables = "tau")

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bistablehistory documentation built on Sept. 28, 2021, 5:10 p.m.