Plotting Composite Material Data

knitr::opts_chunk$set(
  collapse = TRUE,
  comment = "#>",
  fig.width = 6
)

# If any of the required packages are unavailable,
# don't re-run the code
required <- c("dplyr", "ggplot2", "tidyr", "cmstatr")
if (!all(unlist(lapply(required, function(pkg) {
    requireNamespace(pkg, quietly = TRUE)}
  )))) {
  knitr::opts_chunk$set(eval = FALSE)
}

This vignette demonstrates how to create some of the graphs commonly used when analyzing composite material data. Here, we rely on the ggplot2 package for graphing. This package can be loaded either on its own, or through the tidyverse meta-package, which also includes packages such as dplyr that we will also use.

We'll need to load a few packages in order to proceed.

library(dplyr)
library(ggplot2)
library(tidyr)
library(cmstatr)

Throughout this vignette, we'll use one of the example data sets that comes with cmstatr and we'll focus on the warp-tension data as an example. We'll load the example data in a variable as follows. By default the condition will be in an arbitrary order, but throughout the visualization, we'll want the conditions shown in a particular order (from coldest and driest to hottest and wettest). We can define the order of the conditions using the ordered function. For brevity, only the first few rows of the data set are displayed below.

dat <- carbon.fabric.2 %>%
  filter(test == "WT") %>%
  mutate(condition = ordered(condition, c("CTD", "RTD", "ETW", "ETW2")))

dat %>%
  head(10)

We'll then calculate the B-Basis value using the pooling by standard deviation method. This data set happens to fail some of the diagnostic tests, but for the purpose of this example, we'll ignore those failures using the override argument.

b_basis_pooled <- dat %>%
  basis_pooled_cv(strength, condition, batch,
                  override = c("between_group_variability",
                               "normalized_variance_equal"))

b_basis_pooled

The object returned from basis_pooled_cv contains a number of values. One value is a data.frame containing the groups (i.e. conditions) and the corresponding basis values. This looks like the following. We'll use this in the visualizations.

b_basis_pooled$basis

Batch Plots

Batch plots are used to identify differences between batches. Simple batch plots can be created using box plots and adding horizontal lines for the basis values as follows. Note that the heavy line in the box of the box plot is the median, not the mean. The two hinges correspond with the first and third quantiles and the whiskers extend to the most extreme data point, or 1.5 times the inner quantile range.

In the code below, we use the function rename to rename the column group to condition. The data.frame produced by basis_pooled_cv uses the columns value and group, but to match the data, we need the column with the conditions to be named condition.

dat %>%
  ggplot(aes(x = batch, y = strength)) +
  geom_boxplot() +
  geom_jitter(width = 0.25) +
  geom_hline(aes(yintercept = value),
             data = b_basis_pooled$basis %>% rename(condition = group),
             color = "blue") +
  facet_grid(. ~ condition) +
  theme_bw() +
  ggtitle("Batch Plot")

Quantile Plots

A quantile plot provides a graphical summary of sample values. This plot displays the sample values and the corresponding quantile. A quantile plot can be used to examine the symmetry and tail sizes of the underlying distribution. Sharp rises may indicate the presence of outliers.

dat %>%
  ggplot(aes(x = strength, color = condition)) +
  stat_ecdf(geom = "point") +
  coord_flip() +
  theme_bw() +
  ggtitle("Quantile Plot")

Normal Survival Function Plots

An empirical survival function, and the corresponding normal survival function can be plotted using two ggplot "stat" functions provided by cmstatr. In the example below, the empirical survival function is plotted for each condition, and the survival function for a normal distribution with the mean and variance from the data is also plotted (the survival function is 1 minus the cumulative distribution function). This type of plot can be used to identify how closely the data follows a normal distribution, and also to compare the distributions of the various conditions.

dat %>%
  ggplot(aes(x = strength, color = condition)) +
  stat_normal_surv_func() +
  stat_esf() +
  theme_bw() +
  ggtitle("Normal Survival Function Plot")

Normal Score Plots

The normal scores plot calculates the normal score and plots it against the normal score. Normal plots are useful to investigate distributions of the data.

dat %>%
  group_by(condition) %>%
  mutate(norm.score = scale(strength)) %>%
  ggplot(aes(x = norm.score, y = strength, colour = condition)) +
  geom_point() +
  ggtitle("Normal Scores Plot") +
  theme_bw()

Q-Q Plots

A Q-Q plot compares the data against the theoretical quantiles for a particular distribution. A line is also plotted showing the normal distribution with mean and variance from the data. If the data exactly followed a normal distribution, all points would fall on this line.

dat %>%
  ggplot(aes(sample = strength, colour = condition)) +
  geom_qq() +
  geom_qq_line() +
  ggtitle("Q-Q Plot") +
  theme_bw()

Property Plots

Property plots allow for a variety of properties for a group to be compared to other properties within the same group, as well as to other group properties. The properties included in this plot are A-Basis, B-Basis, Pooled A- and B-Basis, Pooled Modified CV (Coefficient of Variation) A- and B-Basis, Mean, and Min for each group.

The property plots will take a bit of work to construct.

First, the distribution of each group must be determined. Once the distribution has been determined, the proper basis calculation based on that distribution should be filled in below. We also have a column in the tables below for extra arguments to pass to the basis function, such as overrides required or the method for the basis_hk_ext function to use.

b_basis_fcn <- tribble(
  ~condition, ~fcn, ~args,
  "CTD", "basis_normal", list(override = c("between_batch_variability")),
  "RTD", "basis_normal", list(override = c("between_batch_variability")),
  "ETW", "basis_hk_ext", NULL,
  "ETW2", "basis_normal", list(override = c("between_batch_variability"))
)

a_basis_fcn <- tribble(
  ~condition, ~fcn, ~args,
  "CTD", "basis_normal", list(override = c("between_batch_variability")),
  "RTD", "basis_normal", list(override = c("between_batch_variability")),
  "ETW", "basis_hk_ext", list(method = "woodward-frawley"),
  "ETW2", "basis_normal", list(override = c("between_batch_variability"))
)

We'll write a function that takes the data and information about the distribution and computes the single-point basis value. We'll use this function for both A- and B-Basis, so we'll add a parameter for the probability (0.90 or 0.99).

single_point_fcn <- function(group_x, group_batch, cond, basis_fcn, p) {
  fcn <- basis_fcn$fcn[basis_fcn$condition == cond[1]]
  extra_args <- basis_fcn$args[basis_fcn$condition == cond[1]]

  args <- c(
    list(x = group_x, batch = group_batch, p = p),
    unlist(extra_args))
  basis <- do.call(fcn, args)
  basis$basis
}

single_point_results <- dat %>%
  group_by(condition) %>%
  summarise(single_point_b_basis = single_point_fcn(
              strength, batch, condition, b_basis_fcn, 0.90),
            single_point_a_basis = single_point_fcn(
              strength, batch, condition, a_basis_fcn, 0.99),
            minimum = min(strength),
            mean = mean(strength)) %>%
  mutate(condition = ordered(condition, c("CTD", "RTD", "ETW", "ETW2")))

single_point_results

In the above code, we also ensure that the condition column is still in the order we expect.

We've already computed the B-Basis of the data using a pooling method. We'll do the same for A-Basis:

a_basis_pooled <- dat %>%
  basis_pooled_cv(strength, condition, batch, p = 0.99,
                  override = c("between_group_variability",
                               "normalized_variance_equal"))

a_basis_pooled

As we saw before, the returned object has a property called basis, which is a data.frame for the pooling methods.

a_basis_pooled$basis

We can take this data.frame and change the column names to suit our needs.

a_basis_pooled$basis %>%
  rename(condition = group,
         b_basis_pooled = value)

We can combine all these steps into one statement. We'll also ensure that the conditions are listed in the order we want.

a_basis_pooled_results <- a_basis_pooled$basis %>%
  rename(condition = group,
         a_basis_pooled = value) %>%
  mutate(condition = ordered(condition, c("CTD", "RTD", "ETW", "ETW2")))

a_basis_pooled_results

And the same thing for B-Basis:

b_basis_pooled_results <- b_basis_pooled$basis %>%
  rename(condition = group,
         b_basis_pooled = value) %>%
  mutate(condition = ordered(condition, c("CTD", "RTD", "ETW", "ETW2")))

b_basis_pooled_results

We can use the function inner_join from the dplyr package to combine the three sets of computational results. Each row for each condition will be concatenated.

single_point_results %>%
  inner_join(b_basis_pooled_results, by = "condition") %>%
  inner_join(a_basis_pooled_results, by = "condition")

To use this table in the plot we're trying to construct, we want to "lengthen" the table as follows.

single_point_results %>%
  inner_join(b_basis_pooled_results, by = "condition") %>%
  inner_join(a_basis_pooled_results, by = "condition") %>%
  pivot_longer(cols = single_point_b_basis:a_basis_pooled)

We can now make a plot based on this:

single_point_results %>%
  inner_join(b_basis_pooled_results, by = "condition") %>%
  inner_join(a_basis_pooled_results, by = "condition") %>%
  pivot_longer(cols = single_point_b_basis:a_basis_pooled) %>%
  ggplot(aes(x = condition, y = value)) +
  geom_boxplot(aes(y = strength), data = dat) +
  geom_point(aes(shape = name, color = name)) +
  ggtitle("Property Graph") +
  theme_bw()

Nested Data Plots

cmstatr contains the function nested_data_plot. This function creates a plot showing the sources of variation. In the following example, the data is grouped according to the variables in the group argument. The data is first grouped according to batch, then according to panel. The labels located according to the data points that fall under them. By default, the mean is used, but that stat argument can be used to locate the labels according to median or some other statistic.

carbon.fabric.2 %>%
  mutate(panel = as.character(panel)) %>%
  filter(test == "WT") %>%
  nested_data_plot(strength,
                   groups = c(batch, panel))

Optionally, fill or color can be set as follows:

carbon.fabric.2 %>%
  mutate(panel = as.character(panel)) %>%
  filter(test == "WT" & condition == "RTD") %>%
  nested_data_plot(strength,
                   groups = c(batch, panel),
                   fill = batch,
                   color = panel)


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cmstatr documentation built on Sept. 30, 2021, 5:08 p.m.