gridRecords: Grid (or thin) point occurrence records to the resolution of...

View source: R/gridRecords.R

gridRecordsR Documentation

Grid (or thin) point occurrence records to the resolution of a raster map


This function takes a Raster* or a SpatRaster object and a set of spatial coordinates of a species' presence (and optionally absence) records, and returns a data frame with the presences and absences as well as the corresponding values of the rasters in the grid of pixels (cells). This is analogous to removing duplicates and thinning points (both presences and absences) with a distance equal to the pixel size of the raster map(s) on which analysis will be based.


gridRecords(rst, pres.coords, abs.coords = NULL, absences = TRUE, 
species = NULL, na.rm = TRUE)



a Raster* or SpatRaster object (the latter is processed faster) with the desired spatial resolution and extent for the species presence-(pseudo)absence data, and the layer(s) whose values to extract for those data.


a matrix or data frame with two columns containing, respectively, the x and y, or longitude and latitude coordinates (in this order, and in the same coordinate reference system as 'rst') of the points where species presence was detected.


(optional) same as 'pres.coords' but for points where the species was not detected. If NULL and if absences=TRUE (the default), all pixels that are not intersected by 'pres.coords' will be returned as absence cells.


logical value indicating whether pixels without presence records should be returned as absences. The default is TRUE.


(optional) character vector, of the same length as 'nrow(pres.coords)', indicating the species to which each pair of coordinates corresponds. Useful for gridding records of more than one species at a time. Its unique values will be used as column names in the output. If 'species' is specified, 'abs.coords' cannot be used.


Logical value indicating whether pixels with NA in all of the 'rst' layers should be excluded from the output data frame. The default is TRUE.


See e.g. Baez et al. (2020), where this function was used to get unique presences and absences from point occurrence data at the spatial resolution of marine raster variables.


This function returns a data frame with the following columns:


integer, 1 for the cells (pixels) with at least one presence point, and (if absences=TRUE) 0 for the cells without any presence point, or with at least one absence point (if 'abs.coords' are provided) AND no presence points. If the 'species' argument is provided, instead of 'presence' you get one column named as each species.

'x', 'y'

centroid coordinates of each cell (pixel).


the pixel identifier in 'rst'.

one column for each layer in 'rst'

value of each pixel for each layer.


This function requires either the raster or the terra package, depending on the class of 'rst'.


A. Marcia Barbosa


Baez J.C., Barbosa A.M., Pascual P., Ramos M.L. & Abascal F. (2020) Ensemble modelling of the potential distribution of the whale shark in the Atlantic Ocean. Ecology and Evolution, 10: 175-184

See Also

'extract' in package raster or in package terra


## Not run: 

# you can run these examples if you have the 'terra' package installed

# import a raster map and aggregate it to a coarser resolution:
r <- rast(system.file("ex/elev.tif", package = "terra"))
r <- aggregate(r, 6)

# generate some random presence and absence points:
presences <- terra::spatSample(as.polygons(r), 100)
absences <- terra::spatSample(as.polygons(r), 70)

# add these points to the map:
points(presences, pch = 20, cex = 0.3, col = "black")
points(absences, pch = 20, cex = 0.3, col = "white")

# use 'gridRecords' on these points:
gridded_pts <- gridRecords(rst = r, pres.coords = terra::crds(presences), 
abs.coords = terra::crds(absences))


# map the gridded points (presences black, absences white):
points(gridded_pts[ , c("x", "y")], col = gridded_pts$presence)

# you can also do it with only presence (no absence) records
# in this case, by default (with 'absences = TRUE'),
# all pixels without presence points are returned as absences:

gridded_pres <- gridRecords(rst = r, pres.coords = terra::crds(presences))


points(presences, pch = 20, cex = 0.2, col = "black")
points(gridded_pres[ , c("x", "y")], col = gridded_pres$presence)

# with only presence (no absence) records, as in this latter case,
# you can grid records for multiple species at a time
# by adding a 'species' argument

presences$species <- rep(c("species1", "species2", "species3"), each = 33)


plot(r, col = hcl.colors(n = 100, palette = "blues"))
plot(presences, col = as.factor(presences$species), add = TRUE)

gridded_pres_mult <- gridRecords(rst = r, pres.coords = terra::crds(presences), 
species = presences$species)


# add each each species' gridded presences to the map:
points(gridded_pres_mult[gridded_pres_mult[ , 1] == 1, c("x", "y")], col = 1, pch = 1)
points(gridded_pres_mult[gridded_pres_mult[ , 2] == 1, c("x", "y")], col = 2, pch = 2)
points(gridded_pres_mult[gridded_pres_mult[ , 3] == 1, c("x", "y")], col = 3, pch = 3)

## End(Not run)

fuzzySim documentation built on Oct. 31, 2022, 1:07 a.m.