Applies a function over subsets of the vector(s) formed by taking a fixed number of previous points.
1 2 3 
X 
data vector 
Y 
data vector (optional) 
fun 
Function to apply. Default is 
width 
Integer giving the number of vector elements to include in the subsets. Defaults to the lesser of the length of the data and 20 elements. 
allow.fewer 
Boolean indicating whether the function should be
computed for subsets with fewer than 
pad 
Boolean indicating whether the returned results should
be 'padded' with NAs corresponding to sets with less than

align 
One of "right", "center", or "left".
This controls the relative location of ‘short’ subsets with less
then 
simplify 
Boolean. If FALSE the returned object will be a list containing one element per evaluation. If TRUE, the returned object will be coerced into a vector (if the computation returns a scalar) or a matrix (if the computation returns multiple values). Defaults to FALSE. 
by 
Integer separation between groups. If 
... 
parameters to be passed to 
running
applies the specified function to
a sequential windows on X
and (optionally) Y
. If
Y
is specified the function must be bivariate.
List (if simplify==TRUE
), vector, or matrix containg the
results of applying the function fun
to the
subsets of X
(running
) or X
and Y
.
Note that this function will create a vector or matrix even for
objects which are not simplified by sapply
.
Gregory R. Warnes greg@warnes.net, with contributions by Nitin Jain nitin.jain@pfizer.com.
wapply
to apply a function over an xy window
centered at each x point, sapply
,
lapply
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47  # show effect of pad
running(1:20, width=5)
running(1:20, width=5, pad=TRUE)
# show effect of align
running(1:20, width=5, align="left", pad=TRUE)
running(1:20, width=5, align="center", pad=TRUE)
running(1:20, width=5, align="right", pad=TRUE)
# show effect of simplify
running(1:20, width=5, fun=function(x) x ) # matrix
running(1:20, width=5, fun=function(x) x, simplify=FALSE) # list
# show effect of by
running(1:20, width=5) # normal
running(1:20, width=5, by=5) # nonoverlapping
running(1:20, width=5, by=2) # starting every 2nd
# Use 'pad' to ensure correct length of vector, also show the effect
# of allow.fewer.
par(mfrow=c(2,1))
plot(1:20, running(1:20, width=5, allow.fewer=FALSE, pad=TRUE), type="b")
plot(1:20, running(1:20, width=5, allow.fewer=TRUE, pad=TRUE), type="b")
par(mfrow=c(1,1))
# plot running mean and central 2 standard deviation range
# estimated by *last* 40 observations
dat < rnorm(500, sd=1 + (1:500)/500 )
plot(dat)
sdfun < function(x,sign=1) mean(x) + sign * sqrt(var(x))
lines(running(dat, width=51, pad=TRUE, fun=mean), col="blue")
lines(running(dat, width=51, pad=TRUE, fun=sdfun, sign=1), col="red")
lines(running(dat, width=51, pad=TRUE, fun=sdfun, sign= 1), col="red")
# plot running correlation estimated by last 40 observations (red)
# against the true local correlation (blue)
sd.Y < seq(0,1,length=500)
X < rnorm(500, sd=1)
Y < rnorm(500, sd=sd.Y)
plot(running(X,X+Y,width=20,fun=cor,pad=TRUE),col="red",type="s")
r < 1 / sqrt(1 + sd.Y^2) # true cor of (X,X+Y)
lines(r,type="l",col="blue")

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