Description Usage Arguments Details Value Note Author(s) References See Also Examples

Measures upstreamness as in Antras et al. (2012), equation (9) page 5. The value is weakly bounded below by one, where a value close to one indicates it is near its final use on average and a higher value indicates it is further away from final use on average.

1 | ```
upstream(io, ES, regions = "all", sectors = "all")
``` |

`io` |
An |

`ES` |
An |

`regions` |
Character or Integer. Specific regions to be used. Can either be a character that exactly matches the name of the region in |

`sectors` |
Character or Integer. Specific sectors to be used. Can either be a character that exactly matches the name of the sector in |

The upstreamness is calculated as follows, where, A is the matrix of technical input coefficients, X is total production, E is exports, and M is imports.

*d_{ij} = a_{ij} \frac{x_i}{x_i + e_{ij} - m_{ij}}*

*U = (I - D)^{-1}*

*u_i = ∑_{j=1}^n U_{ij}*

Produces a list over regions of each region's sectors upstreamness measure.

If the import (M) and/or export (E) is a matrix (i.e. not a nx1 vector) they are summed across region-sector combinations.

John J. P. Wade, Ignacio Sarmiento-Barbieri

Pol Antras & Davin Chor & Thibault Fally & Russell Hillberry, 2012. *Measuring the Upstreamness of Production and Trade Flows*. NBER Working Papers 17819, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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