Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References See Also Examples

`multipliers`

is currently able to calculate four different multipliers: `output`

, `input`

, `income`

, and `employment`

. See details for formulas.

1 2 | ```
multipliers(io, ES, regions = "all", sectors = "all", multipliers, wage.row,
employ.closed.row, employ.physical.row)
``` |

`io` |
An |

`ES` |
An |

`regions` |
Character or Integer. Specific regions to be used. Can either be a character that exactly matches the name of the region in |

`sectors` |
Character or Integer. Specific sectors to be used. Can either be a character that exactly matches the name of the sector in |

`multipliers` |
Character. Any combination of the following: |

`wage.row` |
Integer. The row(s) in Value Added where wages is stored. See |

`employ.closed.row` |
Integer. The row(s) in the intermediate transaction matrix ( |

`employ.physical.row` |
character or Integer. The row(s) in the phtsical matrix ( |

There are four different multipliers able to be calculated:

(1) `output`

- Output multipliers are calculated as the sum over rows from the Leontief matrix:

*O_j = ∑_{i=1}^n l_{ij} *

where *l_{ij}* is the ith row and jth column element of the Leontief matrix.

(2)`input`

- Input multipliers are calculated as the sum over columns from the Ghoshian matrix:

*I_i = ∑_{j=1}^n g_{ij}*

where *g_ij* is the ith row and jth column element of the Ghoshian matrix

(3) `wage`

- Income multipliers are calculated using value add due to employee compensation or wages. Multiple types of wages are supported. Wages are standardized and multiplied by the Leontief matrix:

*W_j = ∑_{i=1}^n ω _i l_{ij} *

where *ω _i = w_i/X_i* is the wage divided by the total production for that region-sector combination, and *l_{ij}* is the ith row and jth column element of the Leontief matrix.

(4) `employment`

- Employment multipliers are calculated using the employment row in the matrix of technical input coefficients (`A`

):

*E_j = ∑_{i=1}^n ε _{ei} l_{ij} *

where *ε _{ei}* is the row(s) corresponding to labor at the ith column, and *l_{ij}* is the ith row and jth column element of the Leontief matrix.

Produces a list over regions of multilpliers.

John J. P. Wade, Ignacio Sarmiento-Barbieri

Blair, P.D. and Miller, R.E. (2009). "Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions". Cambridge University Press

Nazara, Suahasil & Guo, Dong & Hewings, Geoffrey J.D., & Dridi, Chokri, 2003. "PyIO. Input-Output Analysis with Python". REAL Discussion Paper 03-t-23. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (http://www.real.illinois.edu/d-paper/03/03-t-23.pdf)

`as.inputoutput`

, `key.sector`

, `linkages`

, `output.decomposition`

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | ```
data(toy.IO)
class(toy.IO)
M1 <- multipliers(toy.IO, multipliers = "wage", wage.row = 1)
M2 <- multipliers(toy.IO, multipliers = "employment.closed", employ.closed.row = "Minions")
data(toy.ES)
class(toy.ES)
M3 <- multipliers(toy.IO, toy.ES, multipliers = c("input", "output"))
``` |

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