R/elements.R In loon.data: Data Used to Illustrate 'Loon' Functionality

#' @title The first 118 chemical elements
#'
#' @description The first 118 elements, ordered by atomic number.
#'
#' Some values of density, melting point,and boiling point are predictions
#' rather than measurements. For those elements which do not have any stable
#' nuclides, the mass number given is that of the longest-lived isotope
#' (exceptions here are bismuth, thorium, protactinium, and uranium standard
#' atomic weights are available).  See the source for more detail.
#'
#'
#' @format A data frame with 118 rows and 17 variates:
#'  \describe{
#'  \item{Number}{The atomic number.  The number of protons found the nucleus of every atom of the element.
#'        It is the (positive) charge number of the element's nucleus.}
#'  \item{Symbol}{One or two letter atomic symbol for the element.}
#'  \item{Name}{Name of the element.}
#'  \item{Group}{Identifies elements having similar chemical behaviours.
#'              For most elements, the column in the periodic table is identical to the group.}
#'  \item{Period}{Period identify a collection of elements of sequential mass typically from metals to nonmetals.
#'                For most elements, period identifies its row in a periodic table.}
#'  \item{Mass}{Relative atomic mass or atomic weight.
#'       It is a dimensionless physical quantity defined
#'       as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element
#'       in a given sample to the atomic mass constant.
#'       Measurements are in unified atomic mass units or Daltons.
#'       Expressed in these units, it is within 1 percent of the mass number.}
#'  \item{Mass_number}{Total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus.}
#'  \item{Density}{Element density in grams per cubic centimetre. }
#'  \item{Melting_point}{Temperature in degrees Kelvin at which the
#'        element changes state from solid to liquid.
#'        Marked as approximate for Flerovium and Oganesson.}
#'  \item{Boiling_point}{Temperature in degrees Kelvin at which the
#'        element changes state from liquid to vapour.}
#'  \item{Specific_heat_capacity}{The amount of heat energy required
#'        to increase the temperature by one Kelvin degree measured in Joules
#'        per gram and degree Kelvin.}
#'  \item{Electro_negativity}{The tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of
#'        electrons (or electron density) towards itself.  The higher the number
#'        the greater the attraction.}
#'  \item{Abundance}{The estimated abundance of the element in the
#'                   Earth's crust in millograns per kilogram.
#'                   For Technetium and Francium the value is marked
#'                   as approximate; for Neptunium and Plutonium the value
#'                   is an upper bound.}
#'  \item{Category}{Identifies where elements lie on the
#'                  metal - metalloid - nonmetal categorization.}
#'  \item{Subcategory}{Identifies the subcategory of the element on the
#'                  metal - metalloid - nonmetal categorization.}
#'  \item{x}{The geometric horizontal position in the periodic table where this element appears.}
#'  \item{y}{The geometric vertical position in the periodic table where this element appears.}
#' }
#'
#' @docType data
#'
#' @name elements
#'
#'
#' @keywords elements atoms atomic molecule
#'
#' @author R.W. Oldford
#'
#' @source  Data extracted from Wikipedia's "List of chemical elements" \url{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_chemical_elements} (April 17, 2020).
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loon.data documentation built on May 14, 2021, 1:06 a.m.