let_if: Modify, aggregate, select or filter data.frame/data.table

View source: R/let.R

let_ifR Documentation

Modify, aggregate, select or filter data.frame/data.table


  • let adds new variables or modify existing variables. 'let_if' make the same thing on the subset of rows.

  • take/take_if aggregate data or aggregate subset of the data.

  • let_all applies expressions to all variables in the dataset. It is also possible to modify the subset of the variables.

  • take_all aggregates all variables in the dataset. It is also possible to aggregate the subset of the variables.

All functions return data.table. Expression in the 'take_all' and 'let_all' can use predefined variables: '.x' is a value of current variable , '.name' is a name of the variable and '.index' is sequential number of the variable. '.value' is is an alias to '.x'.

  • Add new variables: let(mtcars, new_var = 42, new_var2 = new_var*hp)

  • Select variables: take(mtcars, am, vs, mpg)

  • Aggregate data: take(mtcars, mean_mpg = mean(mpg), by = am)

  • Aggregate all non-grouping columns: take_all(mtcars, mean = mean(.x), sd = sd(.x), n = .N, by = am)

  • Aggregate all numeric columns: take_all(iris, if(is.numeric(.x)) mean(.x))

  • To modify all non-grouping variables:

      iris %>%
             scaled = (.x - mean(.x))/sd(.x),
             by = Species) %>%
  • Aggregate specific columns: take_all(iris, if(startsWith(.name, "Sepal")) mean(.x))

You can use 'columns' inside expression in the 'take'/'let'. 'columns' will be replaced with data.table with selected columns. In 'let' in the expressions with ':=', 'cols' or '%to%' can be placed in the left part of the expression. It is usefull for multiple assignment. There are four ways of column selection:

  1. Simply by column names

  2. By variable ranges, e. g. vs:carb. Alternatively, you can use '%to%' instead of colon: 'vs %to% carb'.

  3. With regular expressions. Characters which start with '^' or end with '$' considered as Perl-style regular expression patterns. For example, '^Petal' returns all variables started with 'Petal'. 'Width$' returns all variables which end with 'Width'. Pattern '^.' matches all variables and pattern '^.*my_str' is equivalent to contains "my_str"'.

  4. By character variables with interpolated parts. Expression in the curly brackets inside characters will be evaluated in the parent frame with text_expand. For example, a{1:3} will be transformed to the names 'a1', 'a2', 'a3'. 'cols' is just a shortcut for 'columns'. See examples.


let_if(data, i, ..., by, keyby)

take_if(data, i, ..., by, keyby, .SDcols, autoname = TRUE, fun = NULL)

take(data, ..., by, keyby, .SDcols, autoname = TRUE, fun = NULL)

let(data, ..., by, keyby)

## S3 method for class 'data.frame'
let(data, ..., by, keyby, i)

## S3 method for class 'etable'
let(data, ..., by, keyby, i)

sort_by(data, ..., na.last = FALSE)

let_all(data, ..., by, keyby, .SDcols, suffix = TRUE, sep = "_", i)

take_all(data, ..., by, keyby, .SDcols, suffix = TRUE, sep = "_", i)



data.table/data.frame data.frame will be automatically converted to data.table. let modify data.table object in-place.


integer/logical vector. Supposed to use to subset/conditional modifications of data. For details see data.table


List of variables or name-value pairs of summary/modifications functions. The name will be the name of the variable in the result. In the let and take functions we can use a = b or a := b notation. Advantages of := is parametric assignment, e. g. (a) := 2 create variable with name which are stored in a. In let := can be used for multiassignment (c("a", "b") := list(1,2)). Expression in the 'take_all' and 'let_all' can use predefined variables: '.x' is a value of current variable, '.name' is a name of the variable and '.index' is sequential number of the variable. '.value' is is an alias to '.x'.


unquoted name of grouping variable of list of unquoted names of grouping variables. For details see data.table


Same as by, but with an additional setkey() run on the by columns of the result, for convenience. It is common practice to use 'keyby=' routinely when you wish the result to be sorted. For details see data.table.


Specifies the columns of x to be included in the special symbol .SD which stands for Subset of data.table. May be character column names or numeric positions. For details see data.table.


logical. TRUE by default. Should we create names for unnamed expressions in take?


Function which will be applied to all variables in take. If there are no variables in take then it will be applied to all non-grouping variables in the data.


logical. FALSE by default. If TRUE, missing values in the data are put last; if FALSE, they are put first.


logical TRUE by default. For 'let_all'/'take_all'. If TRUE than we append summary name to the end of the variable name. If FALSE summary name will be added at the begining of the variable name.


character. "_" by default. Separator between the old variables name and prefix or suffix for 'let_all' and 'take_all'.


data.table. let returns its result invisibly.


# examples form 'dplyr' package

# Newly created variables are available immediately
mtcars %>%
        cyl2 = cyl * 2,
        cyl4 = cyl2 * 2
    ) %>% head()

# You can also use let() to remove variables and
# modify existing variables
mtcars %>%
        mpg = NULL,
        disp = disp * 0.0163871 # convert to litres
    ) %>% head()

# window functions are useful for grouped computations
mtcars %>%
    let(rank = rank(-mpg, ties.method = "min"),
        by = cyl) %>%

# You can drop variables by setting them to NULL
mtcars %>% let(cyl = NULL) %>% head()

# keeps all existing variables
mtcars %>%
    let(displ_l = disp / 61.0237) %>%

# keeps only the variables you create
mtcars %>%
    take(displ_l = disp / 61.0237)

# can refer to both contextual variables and variable names:
var = 100
mtcars %>%
    let(cyl = cyl * var) %>%

# A 'take' with summary functions applied without 'by' argument returns an aggregated data
mtcars %>%
    take(mean = mean(disp), n = .N)

# Usually, you'll want to group first
mtcars %>%
    take(mean = mean(disp), n = .N, by = cyl)

# You can group by expressions:
mtcars %>%
    take_all(mean, by = list(vsam = vs + am))

# modify all non-grouping variables in-place
mtcars %>%
    let_all((.x - mean(.x))/sd(.x), by = am) %>%

# modify all non-grouping variables to new variables
mtcars %>%
    let_all(scaled = (.x - mean(.x))/sd(.x), by = am) %>%

# conditionally modify all variables
iris %>%
    let_all(mean = if(is.numeric(.x)) mean(.x)) %>%

# modify all variables conditionally on name
iris %>%
        mean = if(startsWith(.name, "Sepal")) mean(.x),
        median = if(startsWith(.name, "Petal")) median(.x),
        by = Species
    ) %>%

# aggregation with 'take_all'
mtcars %>%
    take_all(mean = mean(.x), sd = sd(.x), n = .N, by = am)

# conditionally aggregate all variables
iris %>%
    take_all(mean = if(is.numeric(.x)) mean(.x))

# aggregate all variables conditionally on name
iris %>%
        mean = if(startsWith(.name, "Sepal")) mean(.x),
        median = if(startsWith(.name, "Petal")) median(.x),
        by = Species

# parametric evaluation:
var = quote(mean(cyl))
mtcars %>%
    let(mean_cyl = eval(var)) %>%
take(mtcars, eval(var))

# all together
new_var = "mean_cyl"
mtcars %>%
    let((new_var) := eval(var)) %>%
take(mtcars, (new_var) := eval(var))


# variable selection

# range selection
iris %>%
        avg = rowMeans(Sepal.Length %to% Petal.Width)
    ) %>%

# multiassignment
iris %>%
        # starts with Sepal or Petal
        multipled1 %to% multipled4 := cols("^(Sepal|Petal)")*2
    ) %>%

mtcars %>%
        # text expansion
        cols("scaled_{names(mtcars)}") := lapply(cols("{names(mtcars)}"), scale)
    ) %>%

# range selection in 'by'
# range selection  + additional column
mtcars %>%
        res = sum(cols(mpg, disp %to% drat)),
        by = vs %to% gear


# examples from data.table
dat = data.table(
    x=rep(c("b","a","c"), each=3),

# basic row subset operations
take_if(dat, 2)                         # 2nd row
take_if(dat, 3:2)                       # 3rd and 2nd row
take_if(dat, order(x))                  # no need for order(dat$x)
take_if(dat, y>2)                       # all rows where dat$y > 2
take_if(dat, y>2 & v>5)                 # compound logical expressions
take_if(dat, !2:4)                      # all rows other than 2:4
take_if(dat, -(2:4))                    # same

# select|compute columns
take(dat, v)                  # v column (as data.table)
take(dat, sum(v))             # return data.table with sum of v (column autonamed 'sum(v)')
take(dat, sv = sum(v))        # same, but column named "sv"
take(dat, v, v*2)             # return two column data.table, v and v*2

# subset rows and select|compute
take_if(dat, 2:3, sum(v))      # sum(v) over rows 2 and 3
take_if(dat, 2:3, sv = sum(v)) # same, but return data.table with column sv

# grouping operations
take(dat, sum(v), by = x)             # ad hoc by, order of groups preserved in result
take(dat, sum(v), keyby = x)          # same, but order the result on by cols

# all together now
take_if(dat, x!="a", sum(v), by=x)                       # get sum(v) by "x" for each x != "a"

# more on special symbols, see also ?"data.table::special-symbols"
take_if(dat, .N)                           # last row
take(dat, .N)                              # total number of rows in DT
take(dat, .N, by=x)                        # number of rows in each group

take(dat, .I[1], by=x)                     # row number in DT corresponding to each group

# add/update/delete by reference
# [] at the end of expression is for autoprinting
let(dat, grp = .GRP, by=x)[]          # add a group counter column
let(dat, z = 42L)[]                   # add new column by reference
let(dat, z = NULL)[]                  # remove column by reference
let_if(dat, x=="a", v = 42L)[]        # subassign to existing v column by reference
let_if(dat, x=="b", v2 = 84L)[]       # subassign to new column by reference (NA padded)

let(dat, m = mean(v), by=x)[]         # add new column by reference by group

# advanced usage
dat = data.table(x=rep(c("b","a","c"), each=3),

take(dat, sum(v), by=list(y%%2))              # expressions in by
take(dat, sum(v), by=list(bool = y%%2))       # same, using a named list to change by column name
take_all(dat, sum, by=x)                      # sum of all (other) columns for each group
     by = list(x, y%%2)               # by 2 expressions

take(dat, seq = min(a):max(b), by=x)  # j is not limited to just aggregations
dat %>%
    take(V1 = sum(v), by=x) %>%
    take_if(V1<20)                    # compound query

dat %>%
    take(V1 = sum(v), by=x) %>%
    sort_by(-V1) %>%                  # ordering results

maditr documentation built on April 2, 2022, 5:05 p.m.