holes  R Documentation 
These function provide different measures of the degree to which nodes fill structural holes, as outlined in Burt (1992):
node_bridges()
measures the sum of bridges to which each node
is adjacent.
node_redundancy()
measures the redundancy of each nodes' contacts.
node_effsize()
measures nodes' effective size.
node_efficiency()
measures nodes' efficiency.
node_constraint()
measures nodes' constraint scores for onemode networks
according to Burt (1992) and for twomode networks according to Hollway et al (2020).
node_hierarchy()
measures nodes' exposure to hierarchy,
where only one or two contacts are the source of closure.
node_eccentricity()
measures nodes' eccentricity or Koenig number,
a measure of farness based on number of links needed to reach
most distant node in the network.
node_neighbours_degree()
measures nodes' average nearest neighbors degree,
or knn
, a measure of the type of local environment a node finds itself in
tie_cohesion()
measures the ratio between common neighbors to ties'
adjacent nodes and the total number of adjacent nodes,
where high values indicate ties' embeddedness in dense local environments
Burt's theory holds that while those nodes embedded in dense clusters of close connections are likely exposed to the same or similar ideas and information, those who fill structural holes between two otherwise disconnected groups can gain some comparative advantage from that position.
node_bridges(.data)
node_redundancy(.data)
node_effsize(.data)
node_efficiency(.data)
node_constraint(.data)
node_hierarchy(.data)
node_eccentricity(.data)
node_neighbours_degree(.data)
tie_cohesion(.data)
.data 
An object of a

A number of different ways of measuring these structural holes are available.
Note that we use Borgatti's reformulation for unweighted networks in
node_redundancy()
and node_effsize()
.
Redundancy is thus \frac{2t}{n}
,
where t
is the sum of ties and n
the sum of nodes in each node's neighbourhood,
and effective size is calculated as n  \frac{2t}{n}
.
Node efficiency is the node's effective size divided by its degree.
Burt, Ronald S. 1992. Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Borgatti, Steven. 1997. “Structural Holes: Unpacking Burt’s Redundancy Measures” Connections 20(1):3538.
Burchard, Jake, and Benjamin Cornwell. 2018. “Structural Holes and Bridging in TwoMode Networks.” Social Networks 55:11–20. \Sexpr[results=rd]{tools:::Rd_expr_doi("10.1016/j.socnet.2018.04.001")}
Hollway, James, JeanFrédéric Morin, and Joost Pauwelyn. 2020. "Structural conditions for novelty: the introduction of new environmental clauses to the trade regime complex." International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 20 (1): 61–83. \Sexpr[results=rd]{tools:::Rd_expr_doi("10.1007/s10784019094645")}.
Barrat, Alain, Marc Barthelemy, Romualdo PastorSatorras, and Alessandro Vespignani. 2004. "The architecture of complex weighted networks", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101: 3747.
Other measures:
between_centrality
,
close_centrality
,
closure
,
cohesion()
,
degree_centrality
,
eigenv_centrality
,
features
,
heterogeneity
,
hierarchy
,
net_diffusion
,
node_diffusion
,
periods
node_bridges(ison_adolescents)
node_bridges(ison_southern_women)
node_redundancy(ison_adolescents)
node_redundancy(ison_southern_women)
node_effsize(ison_adolescents)
node_effsize(ison_southern_women)
node_efficiency(ison_adolescents)
node_efficiency(ison_southern_women)
node_constraint(ison_southern_women)
node_hierarchy(ison_adolescents)
node_hierarchy(ison_southern_women)
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